Energy and entropy balances are central to process thermodynamics calculations. This presentation reviews the principles for each balance. Examples are provided for valves, compressors, turbines, heat exchangers and their combinations. Concepts are provided to permit extension to generic processes. Principles of reference states are included, and commonly used reference states and property calculation pathways are reviewed.
Good skills with energy balances are important for process design and troubleshooting. Entropy is a defined property important for understanding optimum work interactions (least work input or most work output) for a process. The energy balance and entropy balance are also known as the first law and second law of thermodynamics, respectively.
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