Process Safety Technical Areas

Safety Controls, Alarms, and Interlocks As IPLs

Conference Presentation
AIChE Spring Meeting and Global Congress on Process Safety
April 30, 2013
Layers of Protection Analysis (LOPA) involves the analysis of the sequence of events leading to an identified scenario. This analysis yields an...

Management Discipline: Defining a Process Safety Strategy

Conference Presentation
AIChE Spring Meeting and Global Congress on Process Safety
April 30, 2013
Management Discipline: Defining a Process Safety Strategy Jerry J. Forest - Global Process Safety Manager, Celanese

Troubleshooting a Furnace Emissions Problem

Conference Presentation
AIChE Spring Meeting and Global Congress on Process Safety
April 30, 2013
We had been fighting CO flue gas emissions on our CEMS analyzer for around a year, we had indications that it was a burner problem, fixed the burners...

NFPA 68 New Gas Venting Equations

Conference Presentation
AIChE Spring Meeting and Global Congress on Process Safety
April 29, 2013
The 2013 edition of NFPA 68 Standard on Explosion Protection by Deflagration Venting will replace vent area sizing equations containing the gas...

Engineering Pellets of Biomass Blends

Conference Presentation
AIChE Annual Meeting
October 30, 2012
Transportation and handling of lignocellulosic biomass are often challenging and expensive due to low bulk density, in the range of 60-80 kg/m 3 for...

Case Histories and Lessons Learned

Conference Presentation
AIChE Spring Meeting and Global Congress on Process Safety
April 29, 2009
Reviews of process safety incidents and near misses provide valuable learning opportunities. Papers dealing with incidents, near misses, and the...

A Century of Process Safety: Process Safety at OSHA

Conference Presentation
AIChE Annual Meeting
November 17, 2008
This presentation will provide a brief history of OSHA's efforts in process safety management. It will include discussion of the PSM standard and...

Avoid Chemical Reactivity Incidents in Warehouses

Scott Berger, Peter Lodal, J. Wayne Chastain, William W. Doerr, Scott Berger and Peter N. Lodal
Use this approach for the initial evaluation of potential reactivity hazards in storage applications.

Is Your Dust Collection System An Explosion Hazard?

Vahid Ebadat, Ph.D.
The prevalence of dust explosions in dust collection units may be due to the fact that the hazards posed by the powders handled are not fully understood or that explosion preventive and protective control measures are insufficient or absent. This...

Design an Inherently Safer Plant

Special Section
Steven T. Maher, P.E., Kristin D. Norton, P.E., Senem Surmeli
Continue to search for ways to build safety into your process — from conceptual through detailed design, to procurement and construction, and even into operation.

(Chinese) Guidelines for the Management of Change for Process Safety

January, 2013

Inherently Safer Chemical Processes: A Life Cycle Approach, 2nd Edition

December, 2008
Inherently Safer Chemical Processes presents a holistic approach to making the development, manufacture, and use of chemicals safer. It discusses strategies for substituting more benign chemicals at the development stage, minimizing risk in the transportation of chemicals, using safer processing...

Guidelines for Engineering Design for Process Safety, 2nd Edition

April, 2012
The book focuses on process safety issues in the design of chemical, petrochemical, and hydrocarbon processing facilities. It discusses how to select designs that can prevent or mitigate the release of flammable or toxic materials, which could lead to a fire, explosion, or environmental damage.

Continuous Monitoring for Hazardous Material Releases

March, 2009
Whether occurring accidentally or through acts of terrorism, catastrophic chemical releases must be identified early in order to mitigate their consequences. Continuous sensor monitoring can detect catastrophic chemical releases early enough to curb extreme amounts of damage. In several notable...

Guidelines for Safe and Reliable Instrumented Protective Systems

April, 2007
This book explains the decision-making processes for the management of instrumented protective systems (IPS) throughout a project's life cycle. It uses the new IEC 61511 standard as a basis for the work processes used to achieve safe and reliable process operation. By walking the reader through a...

Human Factors Methods for Improving Performance in the Process Industries

December, 2006
Human Factors Methods for Improving Performance in the Process Industries provides guidance for managers and plant engineering staff on specific, practical techniques and tools for addressing forty different human factors issues impacting process safety. Human factors incidents can result in injury...

Chemical Reactivity Hazard Training CD-ROM

May, 2006
The Chemical Reactivity Hazards CD is a self-paced teaching tool intended to teach people how to recognize and manage reactive chemical hazards. It provides an introduction to the topic and many online links to additional resources. The CD has three main objectives: Introduce reactive chemical...

Guidelines for Safe Handling of Powders and Bulk Solids

November, 2004
Powders and bulk solids, handled widely in the chemical, pharmaceutical, agriculture, smelting, and other industries present unique fire, explosion, and toxicity hazards. Indeed, substances which are practically inert in consolidated form may become quite hazardous when converted to powders and...

Guidelines for Preventing Human Error in Process Safety

August, 2004
Almost all the major accident investigations--Texas City, Piper Alpha, the Phillips 66 explosion, Feyzin, Mexico City--show human error as the principal cause, either in design, operations, maintenance, or the management of safety. This book provides practical advice that can substantially reduce...

Guidelines for Facility Siting and Layout

August, 2003
A resource for individuals responsible for siting decisions, this guidelines book covers siting and layout of process plants, including both new and expanding facilities. This book provides comprehensive guidelines in selecting a site, recognizing and assessing long-term risks, and the optimal lay...

Understanding Explosions

July, 2003
There are many different types of explosions, each with its own complex mechanism. Understanding explosions is important in preventing them. This reference provides valuable information on explosions for everyone involved in the operation, design, maintenance, and management of chemical processes,...

Essential Practices for Managing Chemical Reactivity Hazards

March, 2003
In its recent investigation of chemical reactivity accidents, the US Chemical Safety Board noted a gap in technical guidance and regulatory coverage. This volume closes the gap in technical guidance, helping small and large companies alike identify, address, and manage chemical reactivity hazards...

Deflagration and Detonation Flame Arresters

May, 2002
Designed for chemical engineers and other technical personnel involved in the design, operation, and maintenance of facilities and equipment where deflagration and detonation flame arresters (DDFAs) may be required, this book fosters effective application and operation of DDFAs through treatment of...

Wind Flow and Vapor Cloud Dispersion at Industrial and Urban Sites

April, 2002
A key component of risk reduction is reducing the potential consequences that could result from toxic or flammable releases. The science of vapor cloud dispersion has advanced significantly in recent years, but one of the long-standing challenges has been in accounting for dispersion around...

Avoiding Static Ignition Hazards in Chemical Operations

September, 1999
Written by Laurence Britton, who has over 20 years' experience in the fields of static ignition and process fire and explosion hazards research, this resource addresses an area not extensively covered in process safety standards or literature: understanding and reducing potential hazards associated...

Guidelines for Process Safety in Batch Reaction Systems

September, 1999
Batch reaction systems pose unique challenges to process safety managers because they do not operate in a steady state. The sequence of processing steps, and frequent start-ups and shutdowns, increase the possibility of human errors and equipment failures. And, since batch plants are often designed...

Estimating the Flammable Mass of a Vapor Cloud

July, 1999
This CCPS Concept book shows designers and operators of chemical facilities how to realistically estimate the flammable mass in a cloud of accidentally released material that is capable of igniting. It provides information on industry experience with flammable vapor clouds, basic concepts of fires...

Guidelines for Design Solutions for Process Equipment Failures

August, 1998
While there is no "perfect" solution or absolute zero risk, engineering design can significantly reduce risk potential in the CPI. In Guidelines for Design Solutions to Process Equipment Failures, industry experts offer their broad experience in identifying numerous solutions to the more common...

Guidelines for Safe Warehousing of Chemicals

June, 1998
A comprehensive understanding of the potential dangers inherent in warehousing chemicals is the first step in managing the associated risks. Written by industry professionals for warehouse operators, designers, and all who are concerned with the safe warehousing of chemicals, this book offers a...

Guidelines for Pressure Relief and Effluent Handling Systems

March, 1998
Current industry, government and public emphasis on containment of hazardous materials makes it essential for each plant to reduce and control accidental releases to the atmosphere. Guidelines for Pressure Relief and Effluent Handling Systems meets the need for information on selecting and sizing...

Electrostatic Ignitions of Fires and Explosions

July, 1997
Tom Pratt, a long-time process safety practitioner and lecturer in electrostatic safety, wrote this book to educate industry in the basics of electrostatics. It offers a selected collection of information designed to give readers the tools they need to examine the hazard potential of common...

Guidelines for Use of Vapor Cloud Dispersion Models, 2nd Edition

December, 1996
The second edition of this essential reference updates and combines two earlier titles to capture the many technological advances for predicting the "footprint" of a vapor cloud release. Cited by EPA in its 1996 document, "Off-Site Consequence Analysis Guidance," the aim of the book is to encourage...

Guidelines for Safe Storage and Handling of Reactive Materials

September, 1995
With new and growing interest in dealing with the hazards of reactive chemicals, this book offers guidelines that can significantly reduce the risk or mitigate the severity of accidents associated with storing and handling reactive materials. Necessary elements of a reliable system to prevent...

Guidelines for Process Safety Fundamentals in General Plant Operations

April, 1995
At last, a book that covers safety procedures and standards with information that is rarely available outside of proprietary materials. A comprehensive source for basic and essential operations and procedures in use in any facility, the book offers chemical operators and first line supervisors...

Guidelines for Consequence Analysis of Chemical Releases

March, 1995
This Guidelines book provides technical information on how to conduct a consequence analysis to satisfy your company's needs and the EPA rules. It covers quantifying the size of a release, dispersion of vapor clouds to an endpoint concentration, outcomes for various types of explosions and fires,...

Guidelines for Safe Automation of Chemical Processes

October, 1993
Increased automation reduces the potential for operator error, but introduces the possibility of new types of errors in design and maintenance. This book provides designers and operators of chemical process facilities with a general philosophy and approach to safe automation, including independent...

Improve Safety by Improving Human Performance

Donald K. Lorenzo
Follow these guidelines to identify situations in which human errors are likely to occur and to correct potential problems early enough to avoid adverse consequences.

CEP: Commentary - Working Together to Put CFATS Back on Track

Bill Allmond
More than five years ago, Congress enacted the most robust and comprehensive chemical security regulatory program to date. The regulation — the Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) — protects facilities against attack without impairing...

Classifying Reactive Chemicals

M. Sam Mannan, Sanjeev R. Saraf, William J. Rogers
This simple classification scheme can be used to characterize the thermal instability risks posed by reactive chemicals in a process.

CEP: YPOV - Engineering Cyber Security

Arjun Gopalratnam
Between March and April 2010, a powerful but seemingly limited computer worm, now referred to as Stuxnet, infected computers around the world, beginning in Iran and spreading to Indonesia and India. A recently published book uncovers findings on the origin of the worm and raises concerns that are relevant to chemical engineers everywhere.

Reduce VOC and HAP Emissions

Environmental Management
Edward C. Moretti 
Follow this roadmap to understand the abatement technologies available for controlling emissions of volaitle organic compounds and hazardous air pollutants and the criteria for choosing among them.

Predesign with Safety in Mind

Gael D. Ulrich, Palligarnai T. Vasudevan
This article will help you develop strong safety instincts that will guide you in making critical decisions in the preliminary design phase.

Reliability for Safety Instrumented Systems

J. Patrick Williams
This article offers a detailed reliability-based methodology for determining the safety integrity level of instrumented systems by providing overpressure protection where arrangements of multiple pressure-relief valves are impractical to implement.

Managing Transportation Safety and Security Risks

Brad A. Fuller
Effective transportation risk management (TRM) balances safety and security with operational efficiency. When developing a TRM program, use this comprehensive framework and these practical techniques to identify and screen risks.


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