Microbiomes consist of diverse microbial communities and exist in all types of ecosystems. Anomalies in microbiomes can disturb the balance of the ecosystem, resulting in diseases and disorders. Microbiome engineering attempts to mitigate these occurrences by modifying structures of the microbiota to restore ecological balance. Because of this, microbiome engineering has been instrumental in improving human health and agriculture productivity. ICME 2018 explores the importance and applications of microbiome engineering. This conference brings in experts in industry and academia worldwide to discuss the challenges seen in microbiome engineering and the future of the field.