(7a) RED Squirrel Tests – Air Products Ammonia Field Experiments | AIChE

(7a) RED Squirrel Tests – Air Products Ammonia Field Experiments


McCormack, D., Air Products
Lutostansky, E. M., Air Products
Carroll, M., Air Products
Chester, A., DNV GL
Allason, D., DNV GL
The Red Squirrel field experiments were conducted at the DNV Spadeadam site in U.K. in 2022. Field test data currently exists for high pressure two-phase releases of ammonia from Desert Tortoise (1983) and FLADIS (1996) experiments. No field tests have ever been done for cold (refrigerated) ammonia liquid spills on dry land or into water. Handling liquified ammonia, during storage/processing and transportation, in a cold (refrigerated) state is inherently safer than in high pressure liquified state. The main objective of the Air Products Red Squirrel Tests was to determine the source term and dispersion characteristics for High Pressure (Ambient Temperature) Liquified Ammonia and Low Pressure (Refrigerated) Liquified Ammonia in form of two-phase releases and liquid spills, respectively. Liquid spills on concrete and water were studied, along with the process conditions that lead to transition from liquid spills to two-phase flow regimes based on discharge pressures for cold liquified ammonia. Details on the equipment, instrumentation, secondary containment, and ammonia sensors layout will be presented. An analysis of the source terms and dispersion behavior for two-phase releases and contained liquid spills over a range of weather conditions will also be provided.


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