Production and Characterization of Straight-Run Thermal Deoxygenation (TDO) Fuels | AIChE

Production and Characterization of Straight-Run Thermal Deoxygenation (TDO) Fuels


Conference Presentation

Conference Type

AIChE Annual Meeting

Presentation Date

November 7, 2013


15 minutes

Skill Level




Thermal DeOxygenation (TDO) refers to a simple , non-catalytic , process which produces highly deoxygenated crude oils from levulinic and formic acids formed by acid hydrolysis of biomass feedstocks.  The TDO reaction is a single-step decomposition reaction which converts the neutralized acids to crude hydrocarbons , chars , CO2 , water and volatiles at 450°C and at ambient pressure.  The TDO crude oils have long-term shelf-stability and very low water miscibility compared to fast pyrolysis oils.  Successful TDO scale-up to 50L semi-batch operation has produced crude oils with broad boiling point distribution , between 75° and 585°C , and oxygen content of 1-8 wt.%.    Choice of basic cation is important in TDO reactions as it controls reaction temperatures and product mass distributions. In this work , calcium and magnesium are compared to understand their influence on crude oil composition.  Straight-run crude oils obtained using each cation underwent fractionation and material and fuel property characterizations to explore suitability in gasoline , diesel and residual fuel applications.  The products showed high aromaticity , low H/C ratios at about 1.3/1 and higher heating values of 38-40 MJ/kg.  Crude oil oxygen content , total acid number and final boiling points were all higher for the magnesium case.  In the distillate region , fuel density and cetane index were equivalent.  Diesel combustion properties were characterized by comparing a 100% straight-run TDO distillate cut to specification ultra-low sulfur diesel in a single-cylinder research engine.  Combustion was maintained over the entire operating window under intake air heating with measured increases in hydrocarbon and CO emissions. 


Once the content has been viewed and you have attested to it, you will be able to download and print a certificate for PDH credits. If you have already viewed this content, please click here to login.




Do you already own this?



AIChE Member Credits 0.5
AIChE Pro Members $15.00
Fuels and Petrochemicals Division Members Free
AIChE Graduate Student Members Free
AIChE Undergraduate Student Members Free
AIChE Explorer Members $25.00
Non-Members $25.00