Application of Greenhouse Gas Abatement, Sustainability and Economic Framework (GASEF) Tool for Combined Evaluation of Economic and CO2 Fixation Potential of Ccu Reactions | AIChE

Application of Greenhouse Gas Abatement, Sustainability and Economic Framework (GASEF) Tool for Combined Evaluation of Economic and CO2 Fixation Potential of Ccu Reactions


Conference Presentation

Conference Type

AIChE Spring Meeting and Global Congress on Process Safety

Presentation Date

March 26, 2024


19 minutes

Skill Level




A global endeavor is in progress to diminish greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in response to mounting concerns regarding human-induced climate change. In 2020, industrial greenhouse gas emissions amounted to 8.5 GtCO2, contributing to roughly 24% of total global anthropogenic emissions. Consequently, the industrial sector must cut GHG emissions by 1.2% to reach 7.4 GtCO2 by 2030 to fulfill sustainability and decarbonization objectives. The utilization of carbon dioxide capture and utilization (CCU) has received significant attention for its potential to reduce GHG emissions and decarbonize several industries, such as the natural gas, cement, and steel manufacturing sectors. One way to integrate CCU into a process is by chemically converting CO2 into alternative products. It's worth noting that not all CCU processes may be economically feasible or environmentally sustainable with regard to CO2 capture. Typically, assessing the CO2 capture of a specific CCU reaction involves conducting a life cycle assessment (LCA), and the economic viability of the process is evaluated through a technoeconomic assessment (TEA). These assessments necessitate a substantial amount of theoretical and empirical data, as well as a significant investment of time and effort. Consequently, it is advisable to conduct these assessments in a later stage of the development and scaling up of CCU technology.

In this work we develop a tool based on the CO2Fix metric and the GASEF to evaluate the economic and CO2 fixation potential of CCU reactions. The CO2Fix provides an estimate for the CO2 fixation potential of a CCU reaction based on limited reaction data. The GASEF combines this with the Metric for Inspecting Sales and Reactants (MISR) which estimates economic potential, providing a combined economic and CO2 fixation analysis. This framework classifies CCU conversion technologies into four types: Type 1 is both economically feasible and leads to CO2 fixation, Type 2 leads to CO2 fixation but is not economically feasible, Type 3 is economically feasible but does not lead to CO2 fixation, and Type 4 is neither economically viable nor leads to CO2 fixation. Additionally, this framework allows the estimation of various parameters, such as minimum subsidies needed for Type 2 technologies, minimum CO2 capture for Type 3 technologies to achieve CO2 fixation, minimum CO2 credits for Type 2 technologies, and maximum CO2 capture costs for Type 3 technologies while maintaining economic viability.

The tool is used to evaluate common CCU reactions such as the dry reforming of methane (DRM), the reverse water gas shift reaction (RWGS), CO2 hydrogenation to methanol (CO2 to methanol), direct synthesis of DMC, and the CARGEN reaction. For each technology the tool is used to estimate the CO2 credits or CO2 capture and storage cost required for commercial viability. Additionally, the tool is used to compare the technologies in terms of CO2 fixation efficiency, and their economic potential when economic incentives from CO2 fixation are taken into consideration.


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