(499a) BIO-Refinery BASED ON Indian PAPER Industry Wastes

Ray, A. K., Indian institute of technology, Roorkee
Tyagi, S., Central Pulp and Paper Research Institute
Mishra, N. C., Central Pulp and Paper Research Institute, Saharanpur


Sanjay Tyagi*, Narayan Chandra Mishra, and A.K.Ray

Indian Institute of Technology, Saharanpur Campus, Saharanpur, India

*Central Pulp and paper Research Institute, Saharanpur , India


Paper Industry  is one of the major industries which  discharges some wastes  which can produce many valuable  by-products . These are black liquor ,steam and electrical energy, wood/ bark wastes, sawdust/ bamboo dust ,solid wastes like lime mud, grits,dregs, ETP sludges and silica. These waste can be converted to   many value added chemicals, such as  activated carbon from black liquor , sawdust, bamboo dust,broken chips and partly pulverized bark.

Black  liquor /sulphite liquor produces lignosulphones from rice straw, wheat straw, bagasse, bamboo, sarkanda and hardwood. It has diversified uses e.g. as a base for industrial detergents(washing powder and liquid soaps), oil-well drilling muds,cement and concrete additives, dispersants for a variety of chemicals, emulsifiers and stabilizers, brightening agents for electrolytic refining  during electroplating,binders and adhesives for pellets and briquettes chemicals such as clay, calcium carbonate and titanium di-oxide resin ingredients, lignin-phenol-formaldehyde mixtures as adhesives for ply wood and other wood based panels,rubber additives, adsorbent /desorbent, micronutrient for agricultural applications, asphalt emulsions.Besides black liquor can also be converted to lignin-polyisocyanate foam,lignin reinforced polymers,lignin adducts,chlorobrominated lignins as effective fire retarding agents,composites of alkali lignin and biologically active agents such furgicides, insecticides,nematocides, herbicides etc. ,activated carbon by coking or gasification of black liquor,hydrolytic degradation of lignocellulosic waste to sugars such as xylose and xylitol used as food stuff as sweeteners,synthetic fuel using solar furnace,silica from  straw black liquor, hydrogen gas by electrolysis,vanillin, DMSO,methanol,acetate, formate,lactate, saccharinic acids, lactones, turpentine and tall oil,alkali lignin,guaiacol, pyrocatechol,acetoguaiacone, biogas(methane) etc.

Cellulosic wastes can also produce cellulosic bioethanol using thermophilic bacterial species like Clostridium thermocellum.  In the similar manner, the sludge can  produce glucose by treatment with cellulose enzymes.Syngas from gasification of  pith of some nonwood based plants can also be produced. From straw soda black liquor, silica  can be precipitated for industrial applications such as amorphous silica (for high quality synthetic pigments as paper fillers which can replace soap stone and TiO2),filler, retention aid and as flocculating agent, for production of ceramics.The later can be employed for household china,fine earthen ware, concrete block,electric porcelain, silica light weight brick, clay brick,calcium silicate thermal insulating materials, reinforcement in rubber,in paint manufacture, adsorbent, grease thickener,insecticide and cosmetic industry.

An attempt has been made in this paper to review the existing status of Indian industry to examine up to what extent they are able to  exploit  the potential  of aforesaid cellulose and  lignin by-products. Further exploratory investigation were made to look into  the feasibility of their manufacture in plant practice in India for its sustainability.