Realistic steam prices are necessary for the efficient operation of a chemical production site, both to allocate realistic costs to the different businesses on the site and to provide a true economic incentive for energy conservation.
George J. Koplos, Raymond N. French, Waldo E. de Villiers
These maps provide a rapid, graphical means to visualize the separation possibilities and constraints of azeotropic ternary systems. They also help check the soundness of models used to predict equilibrium data.
The flow fields in multiphase separators are often extremely complicated, making it difficult to model such systems. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and visual dynamic modeling (VDM) can be used together to overcome some of the challenges.
Issues such as sterility, isolation and contamination must be considered when choosing seals for use in biotech and pharmaceutical processes. This overview describes common types of seals and offers guidance on selecting the appropriate seal for...
Continuous crystallizers serve a wide range of applications in the chemical process industries. Optimize system performance by heeding these practical design and operating principles, which apply to the forced circulation (FC), draft-tube-baffle (...
Today, validation is no longer an afterthought for the design and construction of a new or renovated process or facility. It is, in fact, recognized as an integral part of the total project. Fully integrated services are now available to ensure a...
Finding the throughput of a multiple-unit, multiple-step operation, even when it is relatively uncomplicated, is not always an easy matter. Several equations and graphical aids are provided to help determine yearly capacity.
Transforming the performance maps to a reduced coordinate system that is independent of suction conditions and rotational speeds allows these curves to be accurately incorporated into a process simulator.
B. G. Swanson, G. V. Barbosa-Cánovas, M. F. San Martín
Today's savvy consumers want processed foods to look freshly prepared, while still meeting all safety requirements. Conventional thermal treatments are inadequate to fulfill this demand. New nonthermal techniques, such as pulsed-electric fields, are...
Brian H. Pittenger, Gabriel I. Tardos , Herman Purutyan
Use these guidelines to avoid potential caking problems. The key steps are to select a material characterization method, identify the factors that can be feasibly controlled and conduct tests to confirm that process/handling changes yield the...
Physical property values are essential for many chemical engineering tasks. This article reviews sources of physical property data, discusses the use of experimental methods to measure properties, and details several types of estimation techniques.
Bill Carlson, Joe Dumoit, Paul Yanisko, Shiying Zheng
The benefits of nitrogen blanketing include improved process safety, better product quality, and longer equipment life. Here's how to achieve the desired safety or quality results while minimizing costs.
Brendan R. O'Donnel, Bruce A. Barna, Chris D. Gosling
Get the most out of your heat exchanger by evaluating the trade-offs between a one-time expenditure and reduced operating expenses, increased income, and/or longer operating life span. Brendan R. O'Donnell - Bruce A. Barna - Chris D. Gosling -
Explore how mixing parameters impact the crystallization process and recommend ways to improve the likelihood of successful scaleup. The concepts of nucleation and growth, types of mixing, design considerations, agitator parameters and scaleup...
Andrew J. DeDoes, Matthew D. Goetz, Michael J. Misovich
This method reproduces the vapor pressure predictions of the Soave-Redlich-Kwong and Peng-Robinson equation of state with a simple Antoine equation that uses constants derived from critical properties and the acentric factor.
Fieldbus technologies have become increasingly popular in process control applications. This article highlights the practical applications and economics of various buses, so that an engineer can choose the best one for his or her process.