Chemical Engineering Practice

Use Oxygen to Improve Combustion and Oxidation

July
2010
Reactions and Separations
Reed J. Hendershot
Substituting oxygen for air is often a low-cost, easy-to-implement option that can reduce capital costs, lower emissions, and improve process flexibility and reliability.

Reduce Your Compressed Air Costs

October
2011
Fluids and Solids Handling
Ron Marshall
Annual operating expenses for compressed air systems can exceed the equipment’s purchase price. Follow these seven steps to implement efficiency measures that yield cost reductions.

Select the Right Spray Nozzle

June
2001
Reactions and Separations
Peter  Welander
Finding the proper nozzle for specific applications doesn't have to be difficult. By applying basic concepts of nozzle technology, you can create a droplet profile that best suits your needs.

Hydrogen: Liability or Asset?

September
2002
Reactions and Separations
Nick  Hallale
In a petroleum refinery, viewing hydrogen as an asset rather than a liability can lead to increased profits. The key is in the mindset. A typical investor uses money to make money. This article shows you how to use hydrogen to make money.

Handling Flammable Liquids

July
2003
Fluids and Solids Handling
James C. Mulligan
Identify electrostatic hazards associated with liquid processing and understand the precautions available to control them.

Rotating Equipment

October
2005
Fluids and Solids Handling
Kazim Akhtar
Protect compressors and turbines by using piping strainers and following the line procedures outlined in this article.

Scaling Fixed-Bed Catalyzed Processes

March
2007
Reactions and Separations
Jonathan H. Worstell
The new parameter introduced here will yield more meaningful results when a fixed-bed reactor is scaled up for process development or scaled down for plant support.

Understanding Steam Traps

February
2011
Back To Basics
James R. Risko
Steam trap failure can affect process operations and reduce profits. Choosing the right steam traps can improve reliability and reduce cost.

Should You Use Enhanced Tubes?

April
2002
Heat Transfer
Graham T. Polley
Following this procedure to identify a basic exchanger geometry without performing a full exchanger design and to evaluate where and when heat transfer enhancement can be of benefit.

Fermentation Goes Large-Scale

January
2003
Special Section
Pim van Hoek
Designing an economically competitive and environmentally sustainable fermentation route means considering the downstream separations needed to capture the final product during the initial process design.

Formulating Production Planning Models

January
2004
Information Technology
Jeffrey D. Kelly
Optimize petroleum and petrochemical plant production by understanding the mathematical modeling behind nonlinear planning models.

Properly Select Equipment for SIP Systems

August
2007
Fluids and Solids Handling
Tony George
Sterilization-in-place (SIP) systems are essential to the operation of many pharmaceutical and biotech facilities. This article reviews design considerations, selection criteria and performance expectations for control valves, regulators, isolation...

Designing Four-Pass Trays

April
2010
Back To Basics
Daniel R. Summers
Use this procedure to design four-pass distillation column trays and to balance the vapor/liquid ratio on each tray panel.

Bioreactor Design for Chemical Engineers

August
2011
Back To Basics
Gregory T. Benz
Fermentation processes are based on chemical engineering principles. Understand these concepts to achieve optimal bioreactor design.

Optimize Power Consumption in Aerobic Fermenters

May
2003
Reactions and Separations
Gregory T. Benz
By performing the necessary pilot work, and rigorously calculating the full-scale performance instead of using simple rules-of-thumb, significant energy savings can be achieved in fermenters.

Maintaining Piping and Support Systems

June
2005
Operations And Maintenance
Gerry May
With proper pipe support design, installation and maintenance, pipe damage should normally not develop for decades.

Ionic Liquids for Aromatic Extraction: Are They Ready?

December
2006
Reactions and Separations
Sachin T. Anjan
Ionic liquids have already moved into the commercial arena as reaction solvents. This article compares them to conventional solvents and examines their potential for the extraction of benzene, toluene and xylene from reformate.

Step into the Virtual Plant

February
2002
Instrumentation
Michael M Mansy
The ability to warehouse process and control system knowledge offers a vast potential for improved operations by sharing a common source of information and avoiding data duplication.

Selecting a Membrane Filtration System

December
2004
Fluids and Solids Handling
Wu Chen
Proper design and scaleup of a membrane filtration system requires an understanding of the availability of membrane material, pore size and module configurations. These practical guidelines will help in the selection process.

Simplify Experimental Design

January
2010
Computational Methods
Joseph F. Louvar
Save time and money by using this approach to fractional-factorial design of experiments (DOE) for studies involving six or seven variables. <br>

Implementing an IACS Patch-Management Program

May
2011
Information Technology
Kevin Staggs
Maintain state of the art industrial automation and control systems (IACS) by using these steps to support an effective patch management program and implement it with minimum risk.

Working with Non-Ideal Gases

March
2003
Fluids and Solids Handling
Jimmy Peress
Here are two proven methods for predicting gas compressibility factors.

Apply Solubility Theory for Process Improvements

March
2004
Reactions and Separations
Michael J. Gentilcore
For solid compounds that dissolve in solvents but do not ionize, the thermodynamics of solubility can provide valuable predictions and insights.

Improve and Maintain Cooling Tower Efficiency

April
2005
Heat Transfer
James L. Willa
Changing maintenance and/or operating procedures can significantly increase cooling tower performance without major capital expenditures. Here are some tips for ensuring proper design and operation of major tower components.

Increase Powder Flow via Gas Injection

July
2006
Fluids and Solids Handling
Herman Purutyan
Fluidization and air-assisted discharge are two ways to optimize fine-solids handling. However, the choice of technology is as important as designing and operating the system properly.

Choosing Specialty Metals for Corrosion-Sensitive Equipment

July
2010
Back To Basics
Dean Gambale
Specialty metals should be considered for processes that push beyond the corrosion limits of steel. New composites and surface alloy technologies expand the options for defending against corrosion.

Choose the Right Electric Motors for Hazardous Locations

November
2011
Back To Basics
Uriah Van Amerom
Risks associated with operating an electric motor in hazardous areas range from production downtime to injury and death. Learn how to assess the operating environment and select the appropriate motor.

Burning Bright: Trends in Process Integration

July
2001
Process Development
Nick  Hallale 
Process integration has a far wider scope and touches every area of process design. Industries are making more money from their raw materials and capital assets, while becoming cleaner and more sustainable.

Accurately Predict the VLE of Thiol-Hydrocarbon Mixtures

September
2004
Reactions and Separations
Wayne Sim
This methodology can be used to calculate vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE) between thiols and hydrocarbons at any composition, temperature or pressure to improve gasoline fractionation processes.

The G-Value for Agitator Design: Time to Retire It?

March
2007
Fluids and Solids Handling
Gregory T. Benz
This commonly used number does not correctly address the influence of viscosity, and has no relationship to performance parameters such as fluid velocity and blend time. This article recommends actual measures of agitator performance that should be...

Minimize Mechanical Integrity Budget Battles

February
2011
Safety
Daniel A. Long, P.E.
Chemical processing and manufacturing plants must ensure the mechanical integrity of their equipment. These strategies and tactics can make doing so easier when budget issues arise.

Take the Tedium Out of Writing Process Descriptions

February
2001
Instrumentation
Michael J. Gentilcore
Setting up a special function and a shorthand system on a spreadsheet can improve the descriptions needed for implementing a process control system, while minimizing the monotony in writing them.

Modeling Production-Chain Information

February
2005
Information Technology
Jeffrey D. Kelly
Data alone is not information. Use this model to transform data into vital information for decision making.

Modeling Reactive Absorption

January
2009
Reactions and Separations
Eugeny Kenig
Effective modeling of reactive absorption enhances system design, improves experiment planning for parameter-estimation, and facilitates process operation and control decisions.

Preventing Maldistribution in Multi-Pass Trays

April
2010
Reactions and Separations
Henry Z. Kister
This method, based on hydraulic equations in the open literature, calculates vapor/liquid distribution in four-pass trays to correctly predict flooding and efficiency.

Analyzing APC Performance

August
2002
Instrumentation
To reap the most benefit from an advanced process control (APC) system, users need to know how to analyze and monitor the APC's performance.

How to Scale-Up Mixing Processes in Non-Newtonian Fluids

May
2003
Fluids and Solids Handling
Robert J. Wilkens
This article will describe the relationships that must be understood to scale-up fluid mixing processes in non-Newtonian, power-law fluids. The principles described apply to both close-clearance impellers, such as anchors and helixes, and to open...

What’s the Price of Steam?

July
2005
Heat Transfer
Robin Smith
Realistic steam prices are necessary for the efficient operation of a chemical production site, both to allocate realistic costs to the different businesses on the site and to provide a true economic incentive for energy conservation.

Reshaping the Structure of Fluidized Beds

July
2009
Fluids and Solids Handling
J. Ruud van Ommen
Adding structure to a gas-solid fluidized-bed reactor changes the system’s hydrodynamics and can improve performance.

Selecting Nickel Alloys for Corrosive Applications

May
2007
Materials
Paul Crook
Nickel and its alloys offer resistance to attack by a wide range of chemicals, including acids, alkalis and salts, making these materials suitable for may CPI applications.

Process Control for Microreactors

August
2001
Instrumentation
Olgierd A. Palusinski
Field-programmable analog arrays coupled with microreactor technology promise to change the way plants are built, as well as the methods by which their processes are designed and controlled.

Keys to Bioreactor Selection

March
2002
Reactions and Separations
John A. Williams
A few basic types of bioreactor designs are used to produce a wide range of products, from antibiotics to foods to fuels. Here's how to pick the best options for your application.

Navigate Phase Equilibria via Residue Curve Maps

November
2002
Reactions and Separations
Waldo E. de Villiers
These maps provide a rapid, graphical means to visualize the separation possibilities and constraints of azeotropic ternary systems. They also help check the soundness of models used to predict equilibrium data.

Efficiently Solve Complex Calculations

October
2003
Information Technology
Mordechai Shacham
Reduce the chances of computational errors by following this technique, which combines the use of a standard spreadsheet with a numerical software package.

Optimizing Batch Operations

January
2006
Reactions and Separations
Robin Smith
Use this novel method to optimize the operating conditions as they vary through time in batch processes.

Tools to Model Multiphase Separation

June
2007
Fluids and Solids Handling
Timothy Newton
The flow fields in multiphase separators are often extremely complicated, making it difficult to model such systems. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and visual dynamic modeling (VDM) can be used together to overcome some of the challenges.

Selecting a Heat Exchanger Shell

June
2011
Back To Basics
Thomas G. Lestina, P.E.
The first step in specifying a shell-and-tube heat exchanger is choosing the right shell to meet process requirements.

Principles and Case Studies of Simultaneous Design

September, 2011
There are many comprehensive design books, but none of them provide a significant number of detailed economic design examples of typically complex industrial processes. Most of the current design books cover a wide variety of topics associated with process design. In addition to discussing...

Pump Wisdom: Problem Solving for Operators and Specialists

April, 2011
An accessible guide to the main reasons pumps fail—and what can be done about it Workhorses in many different industries, including the oil industry, water industry, chemical industry, food industry, and pharmaceutical industry to name a few, pumps are a vital contributor to maintaining and...

Problem Solving for Process Operators and Specialists

April, 2011
This book provides methods to train process operators to solve challenging problems. The book is split into two parts. The first part consists of two parts; first developing a daily monitoring system and second providing a structured 5 step problem solving approach that combines cause and effect...

Teach Yourself the Basics of Aspen Plus

January, 2011
Aspen Plus is on of the most popular process simulation software programs used industrially and academically. Though the software is available at many corporations and universities, there are no textbooks which are dedicated to teaching the step-by-step use of the software. This book is designed to...

Mass Transfer Operations for the Practicing Engineer

July, 2010
An invaluable guide for problem solving in mass transfer operations. This book takes a highly pragmatic approach to providing the principles and applications of mass transfer operations by offering a valuable, easily accessible guide to solving engineering problems. Both traditional and novel mass...

LNG Risk Based Safety: Modeling and Consequence Analysis

March, 2010
The expert, all-inclusive guide on LNG risk based safety. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is the condensed form of natural gas achieved by cryogenic chilling. This process reduces gas to a liquid 600 times smaller in volume than it is in its original state, making it suitable for economical global...

Reactive Distillation Design and Control

October, 2008
After an overview of the fundamentals, limitations, and scope of reactive distillation, this book uses rigorous models for steady-state design and dynamic analysis of different types of reactive distillation columns and quantitatively compares the economics of reactive distillation columns with...

Advanced Membrane Technology and Applications

September, 2008
Advanced membranes-from fundamentals and membrane chemistry to manufacturing and applications A hands-on reference for practicing professionals, Advanced Membrane Technology and Applications covers the fundamental principles and theories of separation and purification by membranes, the important...
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