The microelectronics industry has been revolutionized by technologies that boast ever-increasing capabilities in increasingly smaller areas. Now, the ability to pack high functionality into smaller devices is poised to transform the chemical process...
Hands-on guidance for the design, control, and operation of azeotropic distillation systems Following this book's step-by-step guidance, readers learn to master tested and proven methods to overcome a major problem in chemical processing: the distillation and separation of azeotropes. Practical in...
This fall, Pittsburgh, PA- the city of bridges, and the site of AIChE's first Annual Meeting in 1908-will connect thousands of chemical enginners for an industry-spanning overview of the field's of hottest topics, when AIChE takes its Annual Meeting...
The solution to a process problem isn't found by sitting behind your desk, but by going into the plant and carrying out tests and evaluating data.
Follow these guidelines for monitoring, evaluating, and troubleshooting RO units to ensure reliable and efficient system operation.
Innovative advances continue to benefit all three of today's air separation technologies, helping to reduce power consumption and capital costs, and, in turn, expand their markets.
Purifying high-value mixtures, such as pharmaceuticals, can be an expensive undertaking. Choosing the correct chromatography methods can improve purity and reduce processing time and cost.
Operating a column under actual distillation conditions is important for obtaining commercially valid hydraulic data. This article describes how a column was modified to operate in either a production or a research mode to collect hydraulic and mass...
Bruce S. Holden , Mark Pilling
Tower-related problems can be difficult, time-consuming, and expensive to diagnose and fix. Here’s how to avoid difficulties and improve operating efficiency.
Douglas C. White
Nonlinearities in the response of a column to changes in operating conditions and in common economic valuation functions can have significant impacts on the economic optimum energy consumption for the column. Here’s a way to account for such...
Warren D. Seider, James R. Phimister
This processing strategy combines the advantages of batch and continuous operation, providing flexibility and efficiency in a single design.
Robert J. Conroy, Daniel R. Webb, Robert D. Rounding, Umesh Mathur
This methodology, based on steady-state and dynamic simulation, can be used to develop the necessary models— and avoid disruptive and costly step testing to the extent feasible.
Harry Kooijman, Rajamani Krishna , Ross Taylor
Previously, simulations based on nonequilibrium, or rate-based, models were considered impractical due to their complexity. However, with ever-increasing computing power, these simulations are not only feasible, but in some circumstances they should...
Matthew Olsson, Henry Z. Kister
Use this new correlation based on window liquid velocity to predict baffle tray capacity.
These distillation setups can cut capital and operating costs by up to 30%, and increase separation efficiency. Here is a straightforward method for evaluation.
Daniel R. Summers
A good performance evaluation can lead to a significant improvement in column performance and establish a basis for future tower evaluations. <br>
Frank Parma , Wu Chen
Proper design and scaleup of a membrane filtration system requires an understanding of the availability of membrane material, pore size and module configurations. These practical guidelines will help in the selection process.
This membrane process has found growing use for dehydrating organics. Uses keep increasing, mostly due to development of new, high-temperature membranes.
Follow these guidelines to prevent fouling, scaling and degradation of reverse osmosis membranes.
Ka M. Ng, Lionel O'Young, Christianto Wibowo
Use phase diagrams to develop reliable crystallization processes quickly and cost effectively.
Sachin T. Anjan
Ionic liquids have already moved into the commercial arena as reaction solvents. This article compares them to conventional solvents and examines their potential for the extraction of benzene, toluene and xylene from reformate.
Henry Z. Kister
Be careful of these key issues that may generate differences between a distillation-tower simulation and its actual performance. Simulations do not always square with nuts-and-bolts reality.
Daniel R. Summers
Use this procedure to design four-pass distillation column trays and to balance the vapor/liquid ratio on each tray panel.
Robert T Jacobsen
When selecting a precious metals refiner, it’s important to first understand the basics of sampling, assaying and environmental issues, as well as the concept of leasing metal.
A high-pressure gas flow in a letdown circuit can cause damage to piping and equipment. Here is how to design a system to avoid damage should a pressurized gas flow occur GianniAnci-
Henry Z. Kister
When designing a new distillation column or revamping an existing one, it is important to understand the factors that affect overall tray efficiency.
George G. Vago, David Greene
Follow these guidelines for specifying, selecting and designing overhead vacuum condensers.
Conceived more than seven decades ago, dividing-wall columns are now only gaining widespread acceptance. The reasons— the drive to save energy and advances in computer technology that have overcome the burden of doing complex column internal designs.
George J. Koplos, Raymond N. French, Waldo E. de Villiers
These maps provide a rapid, graphical means to visualize the separation possibilities and constraints of azeotropic ternary systems. They also help check the soundness of models used to predict equilibrium data.
Matthew R. Olsson, Walter J. Stupin, Richard Dionne, Henry Z. Kister
This method, based on hydraulic equations in the open literature, calculates vapor/liquid distribution in four-pass trays to correctly predict flooding and efficiency.
Robert T Jacobsen
Pre-burning prior to catalyst recovery/refining enhances sampling accuracy for higher returns of the remaining precious metals.
Michael J. Gentilcore
Operating at a constant level can reduce the loss of the replacement solvent to the distillate by 50–70%.
Terrence L. Chambers, James R. Reinhardt
Use this optimization-based approach to analyze multi-component, multi-phase Equilibria.
Donald F. Schneider
The regeneration of sulfolane, a common extraction solvent, is difficult. With proper attention to design and operation, problems can be minimized.
Andrew W. Sloley
Maintaining proper pressure can play a crucial role in the stable operation of a distillation column. Here’s how to select the most appropriate pressure-control scheme.
Jake Jevric, Muhammad E. Fayed
This method uses a numerical solution to the McCabe-Thiele diagram to find the theoretical number of stages for binary and pseudo-binary systems,then calculates the actual number of stages, reflux ratio and column dimensions.
To function properly at optimum capacity and efficiency, multi-pass trays must be designed so that the liquid and vapor flows are properly balanced. This article provides guidance on how to achieve that.
Ernest A. Perkins , Ryan C. Schad
Try these practical ways to boost capacity, increase product quality or reduce cycle time in batch and continuous systems.
Henry Z. Kister
This article explains the principles behind minor-component trapping, summarizes industrial experiences and provides guidelines for diagnosing and addressing the problem.
Saeid Mokhatab, David Connolly, Timothy Newton
The flow fields in multiphase separators are often extremely complicated, making it difficult to model such systems. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and visual dynamic modeling (VDM) can be used together to overcome some of the challenges.
Robin Smith, Megan Jobson, Mamdouh Gadalla
This method optimizes the existing distillation system and its heat-exchanger network simultaneously, lowering energy consumption and freeing up capacity at a minimum capital investment.
Mohamed S.M. Shakur, Dennis O'Brien, Steven P. Rosenblum, James W. Harris, Douglas A. Stewart, Michael A. Schultz
These distillation columns can significantly reduce capital and energy expenses vs. conventional multicolumn arrangements.
William Wilkie, Victor Norton
Before selecting a centrifuge for your application, understand its principles of operation and investigate the key process variables.
Terra L. Vincent, Peter Welander
Finding the proper nozzle for specific applications doesn't have to be difficult. By applying basic concepts of nozzle technology, you can create a droplet profile that best suits your needs.
Tangential flow filtration (TFF) is commonly used to concentrate and dialyze solutes. It generally involves the circulation of the feed solution over a filter surface. This article presents a brief overview of the principles governing TFF, and...
Paul M. Mathias
Use this spreadsheet-based visualization and interactive analysis of the McCabe-Theile diagram to understand the foundations of distillation engineering. <br><br>
Vince Tassone, Chorng H. Twu, Wayne Sim
This methodology can be used to calculate vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE) between thiols and hydrocarbons at any composition, temperature or pressure to improve gasoline fractionation processes.
Aspen Plus is on of the most popular process simulation software programs used industrially and academically. Though the software is available at many corporations and universities, there are no textbooks which are dedicated to teaching the step-by-step use of the software. This book is designed to...
After an overview of the fundamentals, limitations, and scope of reactive distillation, this book uses rigorous models for steady-state design and dynamic analysis of different types of reactive distillation columns and quantitatively compares the economics of reactive distillation columns with...
Advanced membranes-from fundamentals and membrane chemistry to manufacturing and applications A hands-on reference for practicing professionals, Advanced Membrane Technology and Applications covers the fundamental principles and theories of separation and purification by membranes, the important...
As the world continues to seek new sources of energy, the distillation process remains one of the most important separation methods in the chemical, petroleum, and energy industries. And as new renewable sources of energy and chemical feedstocks become more universally utilized, the issues of...
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