CEP: February 2007

After taking three months of maternity leave, I've finally made my way back into the workforce. And now that I've welcomed the latest addition to my family, it's appropriate for me to update you on the latest additions to CEP...

Use LOPA to Determine Protective System Requirements

W. Kent Goddard
This article explains how to use layers of protection analysis (LOPA) to evaluate various process safeguards, determine if safety instrumented functions are required, and establish what safety integrity levels are needed to reduce risks to tolerable...

Efficient Technology Evaluation

Critical Issues
Francesco Citro, Reuel Shinnar
To stay competitive in today's economic climate, rapid and effective assessments of new technologies is a must. Requiring a minimal amount of data, this powerful method can effectively evaluate new ideas and research programs at an early stage...

Apply an Integrated Approach to Catalytic Process Design

Reactions and Separations
Mitrajit Mukherjee, James Nehlsen, Richard V. Porcelli
To ensure a practical, efficient and economically viable process, first consider how a successful catalytic reaction system would work, then focus on making a catalyst with the desired characteristics.

Controlling Emissions During Cold Furnace Startup

Environmental Management
Wes Bussman, Jianhui Hong, Charles E. Baukal Jr., Richard T. Waibel
High carbon monoxide emissions from a furnace while its temperature is being ramped up can exceed permit limits if appropriate measures are not taken. Here are a few suggestions.
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