Mark Holtzapple, Rocio Sierra, Aaron Smith, Cesar Granda and Mark T. Holtzapple
As oil and natural gas prices rise, lignocellulosic biomass becomes a viable feedstock for the fuel and chemical industries— provided key issues are addressed.
Mark E. Jones, Keith J. Watson, William F. Banholzer
Considering the range of possibilities and constraints, a major transformation of the chemical industry's current capital structure is unlikely for at least a few decades.
Carrie Atiyeh, Tim Eggeman
The advanced biofuels industry is at a critical stage of development and deployment.
Bertil Stromberg, Thomas Pschorn, J. Brad Cort
Proven commercial-scale equipment already exists for many operations involved in producing biofuels from lignocellulosic feedstocks.
Ethanol, the leading incumbant biofuel, has several limitations.Butanol overcomes many of these, and holds promise as the next important transportation biofuel.
Harvey W. Blanch, Bradley M. Holmes, Seema Singh, Blake A. Simmons
Ionic liquids show promise as lignocellulosic biomass solvents. But is this approach a scientific curiosity or a commercially viable biofuel pretreatment technology?
Infrastructure, biomass conversion, sources of biomass, and environmental and other impacts are some of the challenges facing the commercialization of biofuels.
David Hogsett, Eduardo Ximenes, Youngmi Kim, Nathan S. Mosier, Michael R. Ladisch
Biochemical and thermochemical process technologies being developed to convert wood and other lignocellulosic feedstocks to liquid fuels will drive the transition from corn-based ethanol to advanced biofuels.
Wendy Higashide, James C. Liao
Engineers are turning to genetic and biological tools and techniques to synthesize higher-chain alcohols that do not suffer from the same limitations as ethanol.
Using nuclear energy to operate refineries and chemical plants would allow more fossil and biomass resources to be converted to fuel and chemical products.
Rising gas prices and climate uncertainty have thrust energy and environmental policy to the forefront of modern American politics.
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