(54am) Dynamic Modeling of Attrition and Reactions in Circulating Fluidized Bed Reactors

Authors: 
Haus, J., Hamburg University of Technology
Heinrich, S., Hamburg University of Technology
Hartge, E. U., Hamburg University of Technology
Werther, J., Hamburg University of Technology
Fluidized bed reactors are widely applied in chemical processes due to the excellent gas-solid contact. A problem that occurs in fluidized beds is the mechanical stress that particles are exposed to during the fluidization, which causes particle attrition. Additionally, fluidized beds are often operated in batch mode, which will cause ever-changing operating conditions with time. This makes fluidized bed modeling especially challenging, because the distributed particle properties, like size, wetness or reaction state, have to be tracked over the whole course of the simulation.

At the Institute of Solids Process Engineering at Hamburg University of Technology, novel process simulation software named DYSSOL is developed, particularly tailored for solids processes. The software is based on the flowsheeting concept. This means that chemical unit operations, like for example chemical reactors or separators, are put into process modules, which are interconnected into a process flowsheet and then mathematically solved. To make dynamic simulations available, new dynamic models had to be proposed for the involved equipment. The models themselves are based on empirical and semi-empirical correlations for hydrodynamics and kinetic particle reaction models are integrated.

The dynamic flowsheeting software was then used to simulate a system of interconnected fluidized bed reactors, which are used for Chemical Looping Combustion of solid fuels. This process is especially interesting, because heterogeneous reactions take place. Further, the process is a reactor-regenerator system causing the reactive solid to be oxidized and reduced and, hence changing its conversion state. Attrition plays a major role for the cost effective operation of the process.

In a small lab scale bubbling bed reactor, the jet and bubbling attrition rate constants for the solid oxygen carrier were experimentally determined under ambient conditions. In a small stand-alone cyclone the cyclone attrition was investigated. Furthermore, the reaction kinetics of the solid material with fuel gases was experimentally determined. All this information was included into the flowsheet simulation of a pilot scale circulating fluidized bed reactor, which is actually operated in our institute to deliver validation data.

The dynamic flowsheet simulation of the pilot plant, which was enhanced with kinetic and attrition information of smaller scale facilities, was conducted over 1000 seconds. A fuel load change was simulated and the chemical conversion was tracked. Over the whole simulation, the attrition and small particles leaving the reactor system was also covered. When comparing the simulation with experiments it could be shown that the gas conversion was sufficiently calculated and the conversion state of the oxygen carrier tracked correctly. The attrition modeling, however, with its parameters measured had to be adapted, so that it fitted the outlet particle flows measured under reaction conditions.

The financial support of DFG (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft) within the priority program SPP 1679: “Dynamic simulation of interconnected solids processes” is gratefully acknowledged; grant number HA 6935/2-1.