(62b) Large Scale Deployment of Low Carbon Hydrogen and CCS Value Chains for the Decarbonisation of Heat: Novel Methods and Insights
The models have been developed with a comprehensive description of all network components within both H2 and CO2 value chains. A discrete spatio-temporal description of the geographical region of Great Britain is used for illustrating the key factors in the design of nation-wide H2 infrastructure. Technological options such as biomass gasification with CCS, steam methane reforming and auto-thermal reforming with CCS and water electrolysis are compared in different configurations and scales to identify an optimal strategy for the supply of heat, given the distribution of incumbent infrastructure and available production technologies at scale. Further investigations explore the value of H2 storage in underground geological caverns, study trade-offs associated with long distance transmission of H2 against local distribution, etc. The effect of model uncertainties, such as a relatively coarse representation of time, on optimal infrastructure design are studied via a multi-stage optimisation formulation with increasingly finer representations of time. This provides clear indications of the operability limits in the designed networks and enables planning of additional capacity requirements. A novel model instance was developed to provide a phased development trajectory of conversion from natural gas to H2 through the introduction of a new set of binary decisions. Typically, multi-period time formulations are used in this context, however, severe computational limitations are present in cases when very high spatially resolved outputs must be defined. In contrast, the model variation in this study combines a snapshot model solution with an iterative strategy to incrementally define regions of conversion and associated infrastructure requirements at high computational speeds. Results indicate pathways with methane reforming and biomass gasification with CCS as the dominant technological choices, given sufficient CO2 storage availability. The total annualised costs increase significantly in the absence of cavern storage of H2, nevertheless, favourable alternate production technology configurations are highlighted for supplying peak demands in such areas.
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