(262a) Rational Surface Modification of Two-Dimensional Black Phosphorus: Insights from First-Principles Calculations
Surface modification of atomically thin semiconductors enables their electronic, optical, chemical, and mechanical properties to be tailored and allows these nanosheets to be processed in solutions. Here, we report first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations, through which we show chemical functionalization of black phosphorus using phenyl, phenolate, and nitrene species, which were widely investigated for carbon-based materials. We find that covalent functionalization using nitrene-derived species introduces a strong PâN dative bond at the interface without perturbing its intrinsic electronic structure. The Lewis basic and nucleophilic P atom attacks, through a free pair of electrons, the Lewis acidic nitrene species. These results are further compared to other nitrene-derived functional groups on black phosphorus, including N-methylbenzene, N-aminobenzene, and N-nitrobenzene. We find that by tuning the charge redistribution at the interface, the work function of black phosphorus can be tuned by more than 2 eV. These results suggest valuable tunability of the electronic properties of two-dimensional layered black phosphorus by covalent functionalization for future device applications.