(85f) Cancer Cell Hyperactivity and Membrane Dipolarity Monitoring Via Raman Mapping of Interfaced Graphene: Towards Non-Invasive Cancer Diagnostics

Authors: 
Berry, V., University of Illinois at Chicago
Keisham, B., University of Illinois at Chicago
Cole, A., University of Illinois at Chicago
Nguyen, P., Kansas State University
Mehta, A., University of Illinois at Chicago
Ultra-sensitive detection, mapping and monitoring of the activity of cancer cells is critical for treatment evaluation and patient care. Here, we demonstrate that a cancer cell’s glycolysis-induced hyperactivity and enhanced electronegative membrane (from sialic acid) can sensitively modify the second-order overtone of in-plane phonon vibration energies (2D) of interfaced graphene via a hole-doping mechanism. By leveraging ultrathin graphene’s high quantum capacitance and responsive phononics, we sensitively differentiated the activity of interfaced Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) cells, a malignant brain tumor, from that of human astrocytes at a single-cell resolution. GBM cell’s high surface electronegativity (potential ~310 mV) and hyperacidic-release induces hole-doping in graphene with a 3-fold higher 2D vibration energy shift of approximately 6±0.5 cm-1 than astrocytes. From molecular dipole induced quantum coupling, we estimate that the sialic acid density on the cell membrane increases from one molecule per ~17 nm2 to one molecule per ~7 nm2. Further, graphene phononic response also identified enhanced acidity of cancer cell’s growth medium. Graphene’s phonon-sensitive platform to determine interfaced cell’s activity/chemistry will potentially open avenues for studying activity of other cancer cell types, including metastatic tumors and characterizing different grades of their malignancy.