(486g) Bulk Solids Flow Theory then and Now - Pointing a Direction Towards the Future
This paper reviews the traditional bulk solids flow theory where the cohesive properties are a function of stress, but independent of strain rate. However, not all bulk solid materials have simple relationships describing cohesive strength effects. Sometimes the cohesive nature of the bulk material depends on how fast the bulk material experiences shear. With some modification, the traditional theory can be extended to materials that are both granular and viscous in nature. The concept of flow or no-flow then becomes strain rate dependent, complicating the concept of arching and making limiting flow rates dependent on the cohesive flow properties of the bulk. This extension can help explain the behavior of cohesive viscous solids such as oil sands and biomass that demonstrate complex viscous behavior in process equipment.
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