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(302d) Development of Predictive Tools for Aviation Non-Volatile Particulate Emissions

Authors: 
Abrahamson, J., Penn State University
Randy, V. W., Penn State University
Aviation black carbon (BC) emissions impact climate and health. Inventory estimates are essential to quantify these effects. These in turn require a means of estimating BC emission indices from jet aircraft. The first order approximation (FOA3) currently employed to estimate BC mass emissions grossly under predicts BC emissions due to inaccuracies in measuring low smoke numbers (SNs) produced by modern high bypass ratio engines. The recently developed formation-oxidation (FOX) method removes the need for and hence uncertainty associated with (SNs), instead relying upon engine conditions in order to predict BC mass. Using the true engine operating conditions an improved FOX (ImFOX) predictive relation is developed. Still, the current methods are not optimized to estimate cruise emissions or account for the use of alternative jet fuels with reduced aromatic content. Here improved correlations are developed to predict engine conditions and BC mass emissions at ground and cruise altitude. This new ImFOX is paired with the recently developed Approximation for Soot from Alternative Fuels (ASAF) and a newly developed C/H relation to predict emissions from alternative fuels and fuel blends.