(239a) Discrete and Continuum Plane-Hopper Flow Simulations with Experimental Validation Using x-Ray Imaging, Arch Profilometry, and Wall Pressure Measurements
The flow of spherical glass beads, approximately cubic wood crumbles®, and wood microchips are investigated using a combination of discrete element modeling (DEM), finite element analysis (FEA), and physical experiments using a custom plane-flow hopper in which the flow is characterized using x-ray imaging, profilometry to measure arching geometry and pressure measurements at the wall. The purpose of this study is to investigate fundamental flow behavior, and for this purpose the simulations and physical tests are specially designed. During the physical tests and simulations, the hopper geometry begins as a V shape with the two opposing side walls touching at the bottom of the V. Basic tests are performed by first filling the hopper with material, and then rotating the opposing side walls inward about their common intersection axis to cause an approximately uniform stress condition throughout most of the hopper. The side walls then slide upward to effectively increase the size of the opening at the bottom of the hopper until the arch of material in the hopper breaks, and all of the material falls out of the hopper.Â More advanced tests are also performed in which the initial rotation of the walls is slightly reversed to decrease the pressure in the hopper, corresponding to âpreshearâ and âshearâ conditions in standard shear tests. Shear tests of the materials are also performed using a Schulze automated ring shear tester with a standard size M shear cell, and the shear tests of the glass beads and wood crumblesÂ® are also simulated using DEM to calibrate the DEM with the FEA. Reasonable agreement between predicted and measured flow behavior is obtained indicating that this type of physical tests and modeling shows promise for characterizing and predicting the flow behavior of compressible and anisotropic materials.