(722c) Process Optimization of Ion Exchange Processes for CO2 Mineralization Utilizing Industrial Waste Streams
- Conference: AIChE Annual Meeting
- Year: 2021
- Proceeding: 2021 Annual Meeting
- Group: Sustainable Engineering Forum
- Time: Wednesday, November 17, 2021 - 8:05am-8:20am
The process simulation was set up in ASPEN Plus using eRNTL as the thermodynamic property method and sequential modular strategy. Ion exchange alkaline solution was simulated using sodium hydroxide and validated against the experimental data obtained from once-through kinetic experiments. Nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membrane steps were also implemented for the separation of divalent cations and production of fresh water and a regeneration stream following mineralization. Sensitivity analysis was carried out using a range of produced water compositions (0.01 â 1.0 M Ca2+, 0.001 â 0.15 M Mg2+, 0.5 â 3.5 M Na+ and 0.0004 â 0.002 M Fe2+) according to the United States Geological Survey (USGS) database.
Calcium carbonate yields increased with increasing CO2 concentrations and were maximized using produced water compositions with larger Ca2+ concentrations. Maximum calcium carbonate yields produced at 5 vol%, 12 vol% and 20 vol% CO2 were 2.3 mmol/L, 5.5 mmol/L, and 9.3 mmol/L, respectively, with the formation of brucite (a magnesium hydroxide phase, Mg(OH)2) and goethite (an iron hydroxide phase, FeOOH) as the primary contaminant phases (99% calcite, 0.6% brucite, 0.4% goethite), which agree with phases detected by XRD experimentally. These results indicate high purity calcium carbonate can be precipitated using industrial waste streams.
Consequentially, energy consumption and net CO2 emissions were minimized where precipitated calcium carbonate was maximized for all produced water compositions and CO2 concentrations. Minimum energy consumptions were 0.21 kWh/ton CO2 processed, with 98% of the energy input required coming from the membrane filtration steps. Produced water compositions with large Na+ concentrations (> 0.5 M) were effective at reducing energy consumptions due to faster regeneration time of ion exchange materials. Additionally, calculated net CO2 emissions were negative for the process and ranged from -0.02 kg/ton CO2 to -0.15 kg/ton CO2 processed, indicating a low emission process. We will also present techno-economic assessment showing the economic benefits of the current process as an alternative to the addition of stoichiometric bases to induce alkalinity for the precipitation of CaCO3.