A close-loop bio-economy based entirely on Jatropha curcas
(Jatropha) promises potential socio-economic and environmental benefits. The high yielding inedible oil can be utilised to produce soap, glycerol, biodiesel and bio-aviation fuel [1, 2]. Residues from oil-seed extraction and woody biomass of the crop can also be transformed to high-value products, such as electricity, fuels and chemicals, through bio- and thermo-chemical conversion technologies [1, 3]. While Jatropha can seemingly be environmentally-benign as a low-input and non-food crop, its yields are enhanced in irrigated and fertile lands . Large-scale farms of Jatropha can possibly encroach on food systems and expand into forest lands, which can disrupt the whole environment-food-energy-water nexus [1, 5]. Hence, the implementation of multi-product Jatropha value chains has to be supported by systematic and data-driven tools to aid in decision-making and comply with sustainability criteria across all activities of the value chains, such as farming and harvesting of the crop, extracting of the oil, biomass pre-processing, converting to products and distributing products to consumers. However, there is a research gap on mathematical models for the design and planning of multi-product Jatropha value chains with whole crop processing, as most literature focuses on seed utilisation and biodiesel provision [6, 7]. Most optimisation models only have a single objective function  and also do not capture simultaneously the spatial and temporal variability of the problem. In this study, the Value Web Model [8, 9], a spatio-temporal mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model, has been developed for the simultaneous planning, design and operation of optimal multi-product Jatropha value chains in the Philippines. The country is divided into 81 zones, corresponding to the provinces, in order to model space-related variables, such as the location of farms, sites for processing technologies, and location of demand centres. Time-related variables considered in the model are a 30-year planning horizon from 2020 to 2050 and the periodic demands for biomass, fuel, energy and chemicals within this planning horizon. Several interrelated variables are to be determined by the model, such as: the locations of farms; sites for processing technologies; the capacity of processing technologies; raw materials to utilise; the type of products to produce; modes of transport; transport network; among others. The formulated multi-criteria objective function is able to consider various, even-conflicting, objectives, such as minimising total costs, maximising product(s) generation and minimising greenhouse gas emissions. Using the model, scenarios are developed for the fuel, energy and chemical sectors of the country. In this presentation, new data and insights will be reported on developing and implementing a Jatropha-based bio-economy in the Philippines.
Keywords: Jatropha curcas; environment-food-energy-water nexus; multi-product value chains; energy, fuels and chemicals feedstocks; multi-objective optimisation; mixed-integer linear programming; simultaneous planning, operating and design.
Corresponding author: Dr Sheila Samsatli. Email: email@example.com
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