AIChE | The Global Home of Chemical Engineers

Developing Crystallization Processes

March
2011
Reactions and Separations
Christianto Wibowo
With solid-liquid equilibrium as its foundation, this systematic approach makes it easy to identify operating regions and theoretical yield to maximize the desired product.

Designing Multistage Agitated Reactors

January
2014
Reactions and Separations
Gregory Benz
This article bridges the gap between theory and practice for the design of continuous-flow mechanically agitated reactors, with a focus on mechanical and hydraulic issues.

Increase Powder Flow via Gas Injection

July
2006
Fluids and Solids Handling
John W. Carson, Herman Purutyan, Thomas G. Troxel
Fluidization and air-assisted discharge are two ways to optimize fine-solids handling. However, the choice of technology is as important as designing and operating the system properly.

Understand Discrete Nanoscale Transport

June
2008
On The Horizon
Anh-Tuan Dinh, Samir Mitragotri, Chinmay Pangarkar
Unlike mass, energy and momentum transfer, which are described by continuum equations, the movements and interactions of the nanoscale entitites within a cell constitute the transport phenomenon known as discrete nanoscale transport (DNT).

CEP: AIChE Journal Highlight - Natural Gas Transforms the Chemical Industry

March
2014
Journal Highlight
The recent development of new sources of shale-gas methane and shale-gas condensate will significantly impact fuels and chemical feedstocks in the U.S. and around the world, says Jeffrey Siirola of Purdue Univ. and Carnegie Mellon Univ. in the March AIChE Journal Perspective article, “The Impact of Shale Gas in the Chemical Industry.”

Accurately Predict the VLE of Thiol-Hydrocarbon Mixtures

September
2004
Reactions and Separations
Wayne Sim, Vince Tassone, Chorng H. Twu
This methodology can be used to calculate vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE) between thiols and hydrocarbons at any composition, temperature or pressure to improve gasoline fractionation processes.

Real World Modeling of Distillation

July
2003
Reactions and Separations
Harry Kooijman, Rajamani Krishna , Ross Taylor
Previously, simulations based on nonequilibrium, or rate-based, models were considered impractical due to their complexity. However, with ever-increasing computing power, these simulations are not only feasible, but in some circumstances they should...

Designing Polymerization Reaction Systems

February
2016
Reactions and Separations
Shrikant Dhodapkar, Pradeep Jain, Carlos Villa
Important considerations in polymerization reactor design include heat removal, kinetics, and process dynamics, as well as polymer properties and product quality.

Determining Manufacturing Costs

January
2009
Back To Basics
John Anderson
Making early estimates of a product's cost components enables developers to manage resources wisely and evaluate the product's economic viability.

Engineering Organs: Heart and Esophagus

December
2007
SBE Special Section
Buddy D. Ratner
The potential for tissue engineering to transform the practice of medicine is enormous. Chemical engineers will play important roles in this revolution.

Supplemental Nanobiotechnology Tables

February
2006
SBE Special Section
These tables offer a snapshot of the many companies, research organizations and universities working in nanotechnology, nanoscience, nanobiotechnology and other variations of the term that has been coined to describe a revolutionary approach to...

Special Section: Natural Gas - Transportation

August
2015
Special Section
Donald Anton, Claudio Corgnale, Bruce Hardy, Martin Sulic, David Tamburello
Development of natural gas as a fuel for light-duty vehicles will require innovative methods of onboard storage. One option under investigation is the use of adsorbents.

Understand Flow Patterns in Glass-Lined Reactors

November
2004
Reactions and Separations
Kevin J. Bittorf, David S. Dickey, Keith E. Johnson , Christopher J. Ramsey
Physical modeling and computer simulation provide insights into the performance of a glass-lined reactor.

Process Safety Beacon: Understand Chemical Compatibility

July
2016
Process Safety Beacon
Chemical compatibility charts can be used to determine the chemical reactivity of thousands of common hazardous chemicals, the compatibility of absorbents, and the suitability of materials of construction in chemical processes.

Selecting Laboratory Reactors

August
2007
Reactions and Separations
Francesco Picciotti, Marcello Picciotti
This article outlines some of the considerations involved in selecting and specifying a reactor system for research and development applications.

Introduction to Fluidization

November
2014
Back To Basics
Raymond Cocco, S. B. Reddy Karri, Ted Knowlton
Fluidized beds offer excellent heat transfer, and have the unique ability to move a wide range of solid particles in a fluid-like fashion. This article explains the basics of fluidization theory and outlines how to design a typical fluidized bed.

Optimizing Crystallizer Scaleup

June
2003
Fluids and Solids Handling
Wayne Genck
Explore how mixing parameters impact the crystallization process and recommend ways to improve the likelihood of successful scaleup. The concepts of nucleation and growth, types of mixing, design considerations, agitator parameters and scaleup...

Special Section: Energy - Meet The Authors

July
2016
Special Section
Steve Baxley, P.E. / Kyle Brinkman / Amgad Elgowainy / Kevin Huang / Noah D. Meeks / Krishna Reddi / Sunita Satyapal / Shailesh D. Vora / Michael Wang

CEP: Profile -Christina Borgese: Building Entrepreneurial Excellence

June
2015
Profile
“I see myself becoming the entrepreneurial chemical engineer,” says Christina Borgese, Director of Engineering and Development at PreProcess, Inc., a consulting company that she co-founded. Her company helps entrepreneurs commercialize their novel technologies by applying chemical engineering know-how and recruiting experts from around the world. “Creating new products, harboring new ideas — that excites me,” she says. “You never know who is calling next, or what new project you will be working on that nobody has ever done before.”

People - The Key to Successful Project Management

September
2004
Career Catalyst
Eldon R. Larsen
While Gantt charts, timelines, budgets, resource constraints, quality challenges, performance measures, and other tools are important, they are neither meaningful nor effective without people.

Modeling Reactive Absorption

January
2009
Reactions and Separations
Eugeny Kenig, Panos Seferlis
Effective modeling of reactive absorption enhances system design, improves experiment planning for parameter-estimation, and facilitates process operation and control decisions.

Energy Supplement: Carbon Capture and Storage - Demonstrating CCS Integration

August
2011
Special Section
Richard A. Esposito, Nick Irvin, P.E., P.G.
The largest, fully integrated process for separating CO2 from fluegas and compressing it to a supercritical fluid, transporting the CO2 by pipeline, and injecting the CO2 into a saline reservoir is now underway at the Plant Barry generating station...

CEP: Chem Economics - Manufacturing Renaissance Takes Hold in the U.S.

October
2012
Chem Economics
T. Kevin Swift
Many living in the Rust Belt — the northeastern region of the U.S. that experienced significant de-industrialization during the 1970s through the 2000s — got an up-close look at the decline in manufacturing in the U.S. In the wake of the Great...

Producing Nitrogen via Pressure Swing Adsorption

June
2012
Reactions and Separations
Svetlana Ivanova, Robert Lewis
Pressure swing adsorption (PSA) can be a cost-effective method of onsite nitrogen generation for a wide range of purity and flow requirements.

CEP: Chem Economics - Energy Savings through Chemistry

March
2012
Chem Economics
T. Kevin Swift
The chemical industry produces many products that are responsible for conserving energy in a range of applications, most notably household operations, such as lighting and insulation, but also light vehicles, appliances, and packaging.

Bioseparation Basics

October
2014
Back To Basics
Roger G. Harrison
Bioseparations are critical to the field of biochemical engineering. Each bioseparation process must be tailored to separate, purify, or recover the desired bioproduct. This article gives an introductory overview of filtration and chromatography — two key bioseparation unit operations.

Process Control for Microreactors

August
2001
Instrumentation
Don  Humbert, Lech  Znamirowski, Olgierd A. Palusinski, Sarma Vrudhula
Field-programmable analog arrays coupled with microreactor technology promise to change the way plants are built, as well as the methods by which their processes are designed and controlled.

Fulfilling the Promise of Nanomedicine

February
2006
SBE Special Section
Rita D'Aquino with Tim Harper, Cristina Roman Vas
Leveraging nanotechnology in the life science industries has given scientists new tools with which they have the potential to transform the world of medicine.

Special Section: Natural Gas (Full 27-Page Supplement)

August
2015
Special Section
Donald Anton, Jared Ciferno, Claudio Corgnale, Richard Dennis, Bruce Hardy, E Nicholas Jones, John Marano, Bryan Morreale, Todd W. Onderdonk, James Spivey, Martin Sulic, David Tamburello, Lynne D. Taschner, Shailesh Vora
Natural Gas: Opportunities and Challenges; Natural Gas: The Energy Outlook; Natural Gas: Electric Power; Natural Gas: Chemical Synthesis; Natural Gas: Transportation

Improve Solids Handling During Thermal Drying

November
2004
Fluids and Solids Handling
John W. Carson, Herman Purutyan, Thomas G. Troxel
Follow these guidelines for ensuring the proper flow of slurries, pastes and wet powders to achieve a dried product with the desired characteristics.

Editorial: Have You Gotten Engaged?

July
2016
Editorial
Cynthia Mascone
This is an expanded version of the Editorial that appeared in the print version of Chemical Engineering Progress, July 2016. A few years ago, CEP published a series of articles on social media and the chemical engineer by Career Corner columnist...

Nanosensors: Evolution, Not Revolution...Yet

June
2008
News Feature
Suzanne A. Shelley
Promising nanotechnology-enabled sensors, monitoring devices and analytical instruments continue to advance toward commercialization for diverse industrial, environmental, medical and military applications— but hurdles remain.

Nanomaterials: What are the Environmental and Health Impacts?

December
2008
Critical Issues
Nastassja Lewinski
As with previous emerging technologies, there have been uncertainties and concerns about the environmental and health risks associated with nanotechnology. This article reviews some of the ongoing efforts to better understand and characterize...

CEP: Editorial - More Than a Spoonful of Sugar

March
2013
Editorial
Cynthia Mascone
Many of us remember receiving our polio vaccine on a sugar cube. Indeed, that was the motivation behind A Spoonful of Sugar, a song from the classic Disney movie Mary Poppins. Walt Disney had instructed the Sherman brothers, Robert and Richard, to come up with a catchy song for the film. When Robert arrived at home, after working all day trying to come up with an idea, his wife told him that the children had gotten their polio vaccine that day. Thinking they had gotten a shot, he asked them if it hurt. His son answered that the medicine was put on a cube of sugar and he swallowed it. And so “a spoonful of sugar helps the medicine go down was born.

Evaluating the Economics of Desalination

December
2002
Heat Transfer
Hisham M. Ettouney, Hisham T. El-Dessouky, Peter J. Gowin, Ron S. Faibish
This article presents an in-depth analysis of thermal and membrane desalination economics and outlines a simple procedure for calculating the unit product cost for various desalination processes.

New Products - July 2016

July
2016
New Products
Product Focus: This month’s topic Bioprocessing Vessel Handles High-Cell-Density Fermentations BioBLU 3f single-use vessels address the demands of high-cell-density fermentation by bacteria, yeasts, and fungi. Robust magnetic overhead drives with...

Safely Handle Powdered Solids

December
2005
Fluids and Solids Handling
Stanley S. Grossel, Russell Kahn, Daniel E. Silva, Robert Zalosh
Understand some of the accident scenarios that result in dust explosions, and follow these suggestions for preventing them.

Calculate Financial Indicators to Guide Investments

September
2013
Back To Basics
John Anderson, Andy Fennell
Engineers can become better informed about their work with an increased familiarity of basic financial indicators. Use these insights to help ensure that the projects you work on are those that are most likely to become financial successes.

Making Plastics: From Monomer to Polymer

September
2015
Back To Basics
Pete Sharpe
Versatility, ease of manufacture, and relatively low cost make plastics some of the most useful materials for a wide range of applications. This article explains the chemistry and production processes behind two of the most popular plastics — polyethylene and polypropylene.

Applications in Drug Delivery and Tissue Engineering

February
2006
SBE Special Section
Ali Khademosseini, Robert Langer
Nanotechnology is an emerging field that could potentially make a major impact on human health. Nanomaterials promise to revolutionize medicine and are increasingly used in drug delivery or tissue engineering applications.

Understanding Crystallization and Crystallizers

October
2006
Fluids and Solids Handling
Lionel O'Young, Ketan D. Samant
Gain qualitative insight into the basic mechanisms of crystallization, the principles of crystallizer operation, and the ways in which these concepts relate to the selection and application of the various crystallizer configurations in industrial...

Using Chromatography to Separate Complex Mixtures

December
2010
Back To Basics
Nathalie Fraud
Purifying high-value mixtures, such as pharmaceuticals, can be an expensive undertaking. Choosing the correct chromatography methods can improve purity and reduce processing time and cost.

Determining Discharge Rates of Particulate Solids

May
2016
Fluids and Solids Handling
Shrikant Dhodapkar, Karl V. Jacob, Madhusudhan Kodam
Many factors affect the flowrate of bulk solids. This article reviews the underlying physics of solids flow and explains how to calculate the discharge rate of solids from processing and handling equipment.

Technical Entity Trends: Trash and the City

July
2016
Technical Entity Trends
Lucy Lyudmila Alexander
New York City, the city AIChE and some 8.5 million people call home, has a dirty little secret. Actually, it’s pretty big: New Yorkers generate over 3 million tons of residential waste per year, most of which is transported by long-haul trucks to...

Solve Problems Inventively

April
2005
Career Catalyst
Jack Hipple
The TRIZ methodology encourages you to approach problems from a different angle. Here’s a primer on the basics of the technique and the tools available to implement it.

Nanotechnology: Cause for Concern?

September
2007
News Feature
Kristine Chin
Nanotechnology— it's a small science with big stakes. Some of the unique properties that make nanoscale materials useful may also pose hazards to humans and the environment. Can the EPA find a way to effectively regulate these tiny high-tech...

CEP: Catalyzing Commercialization - Turning a Problem into a Cure for Increased Ethanol Yield

January
2014
Catalyzing Commercialization
The beneficial microbes that convert milk into yogurt and act in our guts to promote digestive health cause big problems in ethanol fermentation tanks. These lactic acid bacteria (LAB) proliferate in ethanol feedstock and inhibit growth of ethanol-producing yeast — which slows down fermentation, reduces biofuel yield by as much as 20% per pound of input material, and results in production shutdowns due to contamination. The most common control measures, chemical antimicrobials such as antibiotics, do not eliminate LAB. Additionally, the potential for antibiotic residue limits the marketability of dried distillers grains, a byproduct of the fermentation process used as animal feed. Ecolyse Inc., based in College Station, TX, is working to address this issue by developing products to treat bacterial contamination.

Design Reactors via CFD

December
2001
Reactions and Separations
Ahmad H. Haidari, Andre Bakker, Elizabeth M. Marshall
Using computational fluid dynamics to design commercial-size batch and continuous reactors can eliminate subjective experience and empiricism, leading to better-designed, more-efficient units.

Streamlining Crystallization Process Design

January
2004
Fluids and Solids Handling
Christianto  Wibowo, Lionel O'Young, Ka M. Ng
Use phase diagrams to develop reliable crystallization processes quickly and cost effectively.

Evaluating Distillation Column Performance

June
2013
Reactions and Separations
AIChE’s Equipment Testing Procedures Committee, Tray and Packed Columns Procedure Revision Subcommittee
Follow these guidelines to assess the capacity and efficiency of distillation columns containing trays or packing.

Nuclear Renaissance: A Flawed Proposition

July
2010
Special Section
Anthony D'Agostino, Benjamin K. Sovacool
Nuclear power has never been safe and it never will be. Efficiency gains and investment in renewable sources of energy will be sufficient to power the planet without resorting to nuclear reactors.

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