Our goal is to improve current or develop new synthesis that optimize the Zn/Ga ratio closer to 0.5 without subsequent surface area or Zn loss from the precursor. We are currently following a multi-pronged approach to tackle these two issues; Zn-O bond strength is dependent on the precursor employed and is lower for ZnO compared with ZnGa2O4 . Employing this we were able to synthesize ZGONs with relatively low band gaps (2.35 eV) and adequate surface areas (36 m2/g). Interestingly the materials no longer tend to produce a wurzite (tetrahedral Ga) crystal structure as reported earlier3 but tend to be a spinel (octahedral Ga) though it has essentially the same Zn and Ga content according to SEM-EDAX. We are currently investigating the spinel ZGON structure using XRD, EXAFS, Ga71 NMR, XPS, and Raman spectroscopic techniques. Increasing surface areas can also be achieved by the preparation of photocatalysts with mesoporous silica (SBA 15). Zinc gallate phase was dispersed in SBA15 and finally nitrided to yield a total surface area of 515 m2/g. Thus, the above improvements shown in the properties (band gaps, surface areas) can lead to better photocatalysts for water splitting to produce hydrogen. These methods (among others) are being investigated to synthesize catalysts which can replace TiO2 with one that can be effectively be utilized the solar spectrum eliminating the need to use energy intensive UV light sources.
1. Fujishama, A.; Zhang, X., Chimie 2005, 8, 750-760
2. Maeda, K.; Domen, K., Journal of Physical Chemistry C 2007, 111, (22), 7851-7861
3. Maeda, K.; Teramura, K.; Lu, D.; Takata, T.; Saito, N.; Inoue, Y.; Domen, K., Nature 2006, 440, (7082), 295-295
4. Jensen, L. L.; Muckerman, J. T.; Newton, M. D., Journal of Physical Chemistry C 2008, 112, (9), 3439-3446
5. Chen, H.; Wen, W.; Wanq, Q.; Hanson, J. C.; Muckerman , J. T.; Fujita, E.; Frenkel, A. I.; Rodriquez, J. A.; Journal of Physical Chemistry C 2009, 113, (9), 3650-3659&'
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