After completing his B.S. in Chemical Engineering at Notre Dame, Joe served in the U.S. Army as a Combat Engineer. He subsequently earned a Ph.D. in Biological Systems Engineering from Virginia Tech, during which time he co-founded two start-up companies, Gate Fuels Inc. and Cell-Free Bioinnovations Inc. In 2016 Joe served as a Fellow with ARPA-E, the Advanced Research Projects Agency for Energy, where he continues to serve as a part-time advisor. He started the NREL Director’s Fellowship in Feb of 2017.