(18d) Review of Contact Models for Cohesive-Frictional Materials and Applications
A simple, flexible contact model for meso-particles is proposed, which allows to model the bulk behavior of assemblies of many particles in both rapid and slow, quasi-static flow situations. An attempt is made to categorize existing contact mod- els for the normal force, discuss all the essential mechanical ingredients that must enter the model (qualitatively) and finally solve it analytically. The model combines a short-ranged, non-contact part (resembling either dry or wet materials) with an elaborate, visco-elasto-plastic and adhesive contact law. Using energy conservation arguments, an analytical expression for the coefficient of restitution is derived in terms of the impact velocity (for pair interactions or, equivalently, without loss of generality, for quasi-static situations in terms of the maximum overlap or confining stress).
Adhesive particles (or meso-particles) stick to each other at very low impact velocity, while they rebound less dissipatively with increasing velocity, in agree- ment with previous studies. For even higher impact velocities an interesting sec- ond sticking and rebound regime is reported. The low velocity sticking is due to non-contact adhesive forces, the first rebound regime is due to stronger elastic and kinetic energies with little dissipation, while the high velocity sticking is generated by the non-linearly increasing, history dependent plastic dissipation and adhesive contact force. As the model allows also for a stiff, more elastic core material, this causes the second rebound regime at even higher velocities.