(96b) Emission Conscious Scheduling of Crude Unloading, Transferring, and Processing for Petroleum Refineries

Authors: 
Xu, J., Lamar University
Zhang, J., Lamar University
Wang, S., Lamar University
Xu, Q., Lamar University
Emission reduction is becoming increasingly important for petroleum refineries as the increasing concerns of environmental concerns and regulations. Petroleum refinery uses crude oils to produce various fuels such as gasoline, aviation kerosene, diesel, heavy fuel oil, and chemical raw materials such as naphtha and benzene. Crude planning and scheduling is an important part of petroleum refinery due to the potential realization of large cost savings. Cost-effective solution strategies require emission reductions to be addressed from the entire plant point of view, where emission source generations and possible utilizations should be well balanced. But it is a very challenging task due to the large-scale complex manufacturing system, which consists of over 17 major facilities with more than 85 main operation units, and thousands of process streams. The cost-effective emission-reduction strategies should focus on the comprehensively study of material, energy, and information exchanges within the entire manufacturing system, so as to identify the best solutions to the entire plant.

In this paper, a new methodology framework together with a new general scheduling model have been developed for emission conscious crude unloading, transferring, and processing (ECUTP) operations to achieve profitable emission-reduction scheduling (PERS) from the entire system point of view. To identify PERS strategies for refinery plants, a production scheduling model covers both front-end and refinery has to be involved. The key is to optimize the overall material and energy flows to make the plant net profit maximum, meanwhile to ensure emission source generations and utilizations to be smartly balanced. Other manufacturing constraints, such as operation specifications and inventory limits, should also be satisfied as well. Major air emissions from refineries: such as CO2, volatile organic compounds (VOC), nitrogen oxides (NOX), and particulate matters (PM) are characterized and quantified.

The scheduling model is a large-scale mixed integer nonlinear programming problem (MINLP). The efficacy of the proposed emission-considered scheduling model has been demonstrated by different case studies. PERS thrusts target on emission source reductions in a profitable and systematic way, which are economically attractive, environmentally benign, and technologically viable for petroleum refineries. It may also help emission generators (not just limited to petroleum refineries) to proactively and systematically reduce their emissions to meet increasingly strict economic and environmental challenges.