(559v) Using CO2-Responsive Nanogel to Improve CO2 Flooding Sweep Efficiency and CO2 Storage Efficiency

Authors: 
Sun, X. - Presenter, Missouri University of Science and Technology
Geng, J., Missouri University of Science and Technology
Bai, B., Missouri University of Science and Technology
v\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} o\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} w\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} .shape {behavior:url(#default#VML);}

Sun, Xindi (S&T-Student) Normal Sun, Xindi (S&T-Student) 2 43 2019-02-05T20:36:00Z 2019-02-05T20:36:00Z 7 1264 7195 Missouri University of Science and Technology 138 64 8395 14.00

Clean Clean false false false false EN-US ZH-CN X-NONE H4sIAAAAAAAEAKtWckksSQxILCpxzi/NK1GyMqwFAAEhoTITAAAA H4sIAAAAAAAEAKtWcslP9kxRslIyNDa0NLYwNzK1NLc0NTIyNLNQ0lEKTi0uzszPAykwrAUA9OQ+/CwAAAA=


/* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;}


12.0pt;line-height:150%;font-family:" times new roman>Using CO2-Responsive
Nano-gel to Improve CO2 Flooding Sweep Efficiency and CO2
Storage Efficiency

justify;text-justify:inter-ideograph;line-height:150%">Introduction

text-indent:.5in;line-height:150%"> 150%;font-family:" times new roman>Due to the size limitation,
millimeter-sized particle gels can only penetrate in the fractures or channels,
which are mainly focused on the near wellbore problems. However, the in-depth
plugging cannot be achieved by conventional millimeter-sized particle gel
treatment. Therefore, the nano-particle gels are
developed based on the demand of the in-depth plugging. In this study, a novel nano-gel with CO2 responsive property is proposed for the
first time. The CO2-responsive nano-gel can be
stimulated by CO2 to increase particle size; therefore to provide additional
plugging to CO2 flooding sweep efficiency and CO2 storage efficiency.

            The novel CO2-responsive
nano-particle gel was examined using sandstone cores
in order to study the transportation behavior and whether it can form an
in-depth plugging during CO2 flooding. Six cores were used in
this experiment and were divided into two groups: one is the group with CO2
and another is the group without CO2. The permeability of the core
is 40, 130, and 370 md, respectively. The
plugging efficiency of the group without CO2 was measured directly
after nano-gel injection, while the
plugging efficiency of the other group was measured after CO2
stimulation in the high-pressure vessels using brine. Transportation
test of nano-gel was conducted using homogeneous
sandstone cores. Five pressure sensors are installed along the core evenly in
order to monitor the nano-gel transportation. The nano line-height:150%;mso-fareast-language:ZH-CN">-gel was injected into the core until
the third pressure sensor has reading, then the brine
is injected into the core until the fourth pressure sensor has reading. After
placing the nano-gel in the middle of the
core, supercritical CO2 was injected into the core until CO2
breakthrough from the outlet. The core was then soaked in supercritical CO2
for 7 days to allow the interaction between the nano-gel and supercritical CO2.
The plugging line-height:150%;mso-fareast-language:ZH-CN">behavior
was tested by
the following water floodi line-height:150%;mso-fareast-language:ZH-CN">ng

line-height:150%">1. Materials

line-height:150%">1.1 CO2-responsive nano-gel

text-indent:.5in;line-height:150%"> line-height:150%;font-family:" times new roman>CO2-responsive
nano-gel has a novel function that it can increase
its swelling ratio under CO2 condition. Therefore, after placing the
nano-gel in the in-depth, the nano-gel
can swell more during the post CO2flooding,
hereby divert the CO2 to unswept area to
increase oil recovery. In this experiment, the concentration of CO2-responsive
nano-gel is 2,000 ppm and the nano-gel
solution is prepared with 1% NaCl brine.

text-indent:-.25in;line-height:150%;mso-list:l2 level2 lfo1"> 12.0pt;line-height:150%;font-family:" times new roman>1.2  12.0pt;line-height:150%;font-family:" times new roman en-gb>Sandstone rock

text-indent:.5in;line-height:150%"> line-height:150%;font-family:" times new roman>The
sandstone rock used in this study has a permeability
around 100 md. The diameter of the core is 1.5 inch
and the length is 1 ft.

text-indent:-.25in;line-height:150%;mso-list:l2 level2 lfo1"> 12.0pt;line-height:150%;font-family:" times new roman>1.3  12.0pt;line-height:150%;font-family:" times new roman en-gb>Supercritical CO2

text-indent:.5in;line-height:150%"> line-height:150%;font-family:" times new roman>The
CO2 used in this experiment is in supercritical CO2
condition. The CO2 is pressurized in an accumulator which is wrapped
with a heating pad, therefore, the pressure and the temperature is higher than
the CO2 critical point to achieve supercritical condition.

text-indent:-.25in;line-height:150%;mso-list:l1 level1 lfo2"> 12.0pt;line-height:150%;font-family:" times new roman>2.      12.0pt;line-height:150%;font-family:" times new roman en-gb>Experimental apparatus design

text-indent:.5in;line-height:150%"> line-height:150%;font-family:" times new roman>The
Figure 1 is the experimental apparatus design. The sandstone core is put into a
coreholder and secured by adding confining pressure.
Three pressure sensors are installed along the coreholder
evenly and two pressure sensors at inlet and outlet, respectively. The pressure
data is transmitted to the computer. The whole system is heat to 45¡æ. The back pressure regulator (BPR) is used to
increase the whole system pressure above CO2 supercritical point.
Keeping both temperature and pressure above the supercritical point can ensure
that the CO2 flow through the system is in the supercritical
condition. The nitrogen gas source is used to provide back pressure. The nano-gel and supercritical CO2 are injected
using two accumulators.



Figure
1 Experimental apparatus design

text-indent:-.25in;line-height:150%;mso-list:l1 level1 lfo2"> line-height:150%;font-family:" times new roman>3.      line-height:150%;font-family:" times new roman>Experimental procedures line-height:150%;font-family:" times new roman zh-cn>

line-height:150%">3.1
Nano-gel preparation

line-height:150%"> " times new roman>The nano-gel concentration
is 2,000 ppm and the solvent is 1% NaCl brine. After
dissolve the nano-gel in the brine, the solution is
put into 65 " cambria math>¡æ
oven for 24 hours to allow the nano-gel reach an
equilibrium swelling ratio. The nano-gel is filtered
using 10 µm filter paper before use to remove any impurities.

text-indent:-.25in;line-height:150%;mso-list:l1 level2 lfo2"> line-height:150%;font-family:" times new roman>3.2 
Core
flooding procedures

auto;text-indent:-.25in;line-height:150%;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo3">1)      Measure
the dry weight of the core. Vacuum the core and saturate the core with 1% font-family:" times new roman>NaCl
brine;

auto;text-indent:-.25in;line-height:150%;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo3">2)      Measure
core wet weight to determine the pore volume (PV);

auto;text-indent:-.25in;line-height:150%;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo3">3)      Set
back pressure at 1100 psi;

auto;text-indent:-.25in;line-height:150%;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo3">4)      Measure
sandstone core permeability with 1% NaCl brine using
flowrates of 1, 2, 3, 4 cc/min;

auto;text-indent:-.25in;line-height:150%;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo3">5)      Inject
0.5 PV of 2000 ppm nano-gel at 0.05
cc/min (1ft/day) flowrate (or inject nano-gel
until the second pressure sensor has reading);

auto;text-indent:-.25in;line-height:150%;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo3">6)      Inject
0.25 PV of 1% NaCl brine at 0.05 cc/min flowrate (or inject brine until the third
pressure sensor has a reading);

auto;text-indent:-.25in;line-height:150%;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo3">7)      Inject
supercritical CO2 using 4 cc/min at 65 ¡æ 12.0pt;line-height:150%;font-family:" times new roman>until CO2
breakthrough from the outlet;

auto;text-indent:-.25in;line-height:150%;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo3">8)      Keep
the CO2 accumulator connected with the coreholder
and soak the core in supercritical CO2 for 7 days;

text-indent:-.25in;line-height:150%;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo3">9)      Inject
water using 1, 2, 3, 4 cc/min flowrates to test the plugging efficiency.

normal">4. Results

line-height:150%">4.1
CO2-responsive nano-gel plugging
efficiency

text-indent:.5in;line-height:150%"> 150%;font-family:" times new roman>As shown in Figure 2, nano-particle gel has the best plugging performance in low
permeability cores after CO2 stimulation. After CO2
stimulation, the residual resistant factors (Frr) of
most of the cores were improved, which represents that the novel CO2-responsive
nano-gel plugging efficiency can be
improved in supercritical CO2 condition. The plugging efficiency of nano-particle gel to brine is plotted in Figure 4.5. The
results show that the maximum plugging efficiency is achieved in 40 md and it decreases with the increase of rock
permeability. After CO2 stimulation, the plugging efficiency to
brine is more than 90% in the 40 md core.

mso-add-space:auto;text-align:center"> mso-no-proof:yes">
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">

mso-add-space:auto;text-align:center"> mso-no-proof:yes">
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">

mso-add-space:auto;text-align:center"> mso-no-proof:yes">
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">

mso-add-space:auto;text-align:center;text-indent:.25in"> 12.0pt">Figure ZH-CN">2 Plugging efficiency of nano-particle gels to brine

line-height:150%"> " times new roman>

line-height:150%">4.2
CO2-responsive nano-gel transportation in
sandstone rock

line-height:150%">4.2.1
Absolute permeability measurement and homogeneity test

text-indent:.5in;line-height:150%"> 150%;font-family:" times new roman>As shown in Figure 3, the
differential pressure for each segment is almost the same, which indicates that
this sandstone core is nearly homogenous. The water absolute permeability for
this sandstone core is 98 md.


Figure
3 Absolute permeability measurement results

normal"> " times new roman minor-bidi>4.2.2 Nano-gel injection process and post water flooding process

text-indent:.5in;line-height:150%"> 150%;font-family:" times new roman>0.43 pore volume (PV) of nano-gel was injected at a constant flowrate of 0.05 cc/min. As shown in the figure below, the
differential pressure for each segment is almost the same throughout the nano-gel injection process, which indicates that the 0.43
PV of nano-gel injection did not result in an
efficient plugging before CO2 stimulation. Therefore, the nano-gel can transport into the in-depth without forming a
surface plug or near wellbore plug.

text-indent:.5in;line-height:150%"> 150%;font-family:" times new roman>After placing the nano-gel in the core, a 0.25 PV
brine was injected into the core in order to displace the nano-gel
near the inlet and push the nano-gel moving towards
the in-depth. 

line-height:150%">4.2.3
CO2 injection and soaking process

text-indent:.5in;line-height:150%"> 150%;font-family:" times new roman>The supercritical CO2
was pressurized and heated in an accumulator. The CO2 was injected
into the core at a constant flowrate of 4 cc/min until
the CO2 breakthrough the core. The injection was terminated once the
CO2 production was observed. Since the supercritical CO2
broken through the core, the contact area between the CO2 and the nano-gel increased, therefore, the nano-gel
stimulation under CO2 condition was more efficient. The core was
then soaked in the supercritical CO2 by keep connecting the coreholder with the CO2 accumulator for 7 days.
The post waterflooding will be conducted to test the
plugging efficiency of the nano-gel after CO2
stimulation.

line-height:150%">4.2.4
Post waterflooding process

text-indent:.5in;line-height:150%"> 150%;font-family:" times new roman>After soaking the core for 7 days,
1% NaCl brine was injected into the core at various
flowrates. The results indicate that the brine injection pressure increased
after nano-gel treatment, which revealed that the nano-gel can provide a sufficient plugging to brine after
soaking in supercritical CO2. The residual resistant factor for each
segment and the whole core was calculated and plotted in Figure 4. As shown in
the figure, the segment 2 has the highest resistance to water flow, while the Frr for segment 3 and 4 was close to 1, which indicated
that the nano-gel was not penetrate into segment 3
and 4 or did not form a sufficient plugging.



Figure
4 Water residual resistant factor for each segment
after nano-gel treatment

justify;text-justify:inter-ideograph;line-height:150%">Acknowledgement

text-indent:.5in;line-height:150%;layout-grid-mode:char">The
authors would like to express their gratitude for the financial support
provided by the DOE under contract DE-FE0024558.

line-height:150%"> " times new roman>