(367b) Pure Ammonia Combustion Micro Gas Turbine System

Authors: 
Okafor, E. C., Fukushima Renewable Energy Institute, AIST (FREA)
Kurata, O., National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST)
Iki, N., National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST)
Inoue, T., National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST)
Fujitani, T., National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST)
Fan, Y., National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST)
Matsunuma, T., National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST)
Tsujimura, T., National Institute of Advanced Science and Technology (AIST)
Furutani, H., National Institute of Advanced Science and Technology (AIST)
Kawano, M., Toyota Energy Solutions Inc.
Arai, K., Toyota Energy Solutions Inc.
Hayakawa, A., Tohoku University
Kobayashi, H., Tohoku University



Pure Ammonia Combustion Micro Gas Turbine System



Osamu Kurata1, Norihiko Iki1, Takahiro Inoue1, Tadahiro Fujitani1, Yong Fan1

Takayuki Matsunuma1, Taku Tsujimura1, Hirohide Furutani1, Masato Kawano2, Keisuke Arai2,


Ekenechukwu Chijioke Okafor1, Akihiro Hayakawa3 and Hideaki Kobayashi3


1 National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Japan

2 Toyota Energy Solutions Inc., Japan

3 Tohoku University, Japan




Abstract:


To protect against global warming, a massive influx of renewable energy is expected. Although hydrogen is a renewable media, its storage and transportation in large quantity has some problems. Ammonia fuel, however, is a hydrogen energy carrier and carbon-free fuel, and its storage and transportation technology is already established. In the 1960s, development of ammonia combustion gas turbines was abandoned because combustion efficiency was unacceptably low [1]. Recent demand for hydrogen energy carriers has revived the interest in ammonia as fuel [2, 3]. In 2015, ammonia-combustion gas turbine power generation was reported in Japan using a 50-kW class micro gas turbine [4, 5]. It consists of an ammonia supply system, a gas turbine, selective catalytic reduction (SCR), and loading equipment. Since ammonia combustion emits high concentrations of NOx, low-NOx combustion technology has been investigated. A rich-lean, two-stage combustion technique for ammonia gas turbine combustor was researched and developed [6], which operates in the high-temperature region of the gas turbine combustor. To improve the high-temperature resistance of materials, materials were researched under ammonia combustion conditions. Finally, to obtain a larger system, a 300-kW class ammonia gas turbine power generation system has been designed, using newly developed, high-temperature, and high-efficiency SCR.


Acknowledgements:


This work was supported by Council for Science, Technology and Innovation (CSTI), Cross-ministerial Strategic Innovation Promotion Program (SIP), "Energy Carriers" (Funding agency : Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST)). Final reports of Energy Carriers program are now available [7].


References:


[1] Pratt, D.T., "Performance of Ammonia-fired Gas-turbine Combustors", Technical Report No.9, DA-04-200-AMC-791(x), Berkley University of California (1967).


[2] Kobayashi, H., Hayakawa, A., Somarathne, K.D.K.A. and Okafor, E.C., "Science and technology of ammonia combustion", Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, 37 (2019) 109-133.


[3] Valera-Medina, A., Xiao, H., Owen-Jones, M., David, W. I. F. and Bowen, P. J., "Ammonia for power", Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 69 (2018) 63-102.


[4] Iki, N., Kurata, O., Matsunuma, T., Inoue, T., Suzuki, M., Tsujimura, T., Furutani, H., Kobayashi, H., Hayakawa, A., Arakawa, Y. and Ichikawa, A., "Micro Gas Turbine Firing Ammonia", The 12th Annual NH3 Fuel Conference, Chicago, September 20-23, (2015).


[5] Kurata, O., Iki, N., Inoue, T., Matsunuma, T., Tsujimura, T., Furutani, H., Hayakawa, A. and Kobayashi, H., "Performances and emission characteristics of NH3-air and NH3-CH4-air combustion gas-turbine power generations", Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, 36 (2017) 3351-3359.


[6] Kurata, O., Iki, N., Inoue, T., Matsunuma, T., Tsujimura, T., Furutani, H., Kawano, M., Arai, K., Okafor, E.C., Hayakawa, A. and Kobayashi, H., "Development of Wide Range-operable, Rich-lean Low-NOx Combustor for NH3 Fuel Gas-turbine Power Generations", Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, 37 (2019) 4587-4595.


[7] JST, Final reports of Energy Carriers program (in Japanese)