(166b) Biochar and Activated Carbons Derived from Food Waste: Properties and Applications

Authors: 
Yu, L. - Presenter, University of Connecticut
Valla, J. A., University of Connecticut
Markunas, B., University of Connecticut
Gamliel, D. P., Physical Sciences Inc.
Saltzgiver, K. M., University of Connecticut

text-align:center;line-height:150%"> line-height:150%;font-family:" times new roman>Biochar and activated
carbons derived from food waste: properties and applications

text-align:left">Lei Yu a, David P. Gamliel b, Katherine
Saltzgiver a, Brianna Markunas a and Julia A. Valla a

justify;text-justify:inter-ideograph;line-height:200%">a 12.0pt;line-height:200%;font-family:" times new roman>Department of
Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs 191
Auditorium Road, Unit 3222, Storrs, CT 06269-4602, United States

justify;text-justify:inter-ideograph;line-height:200%">b
Physical
Sciences Incorporated, 20 New England Business Center Rd. Andover, MA, 01810,
United States

justify;text-justify:inter-ideograph;line-height:200%"> 12.0pt;line-height:200%;font-family:" times new roman> 

.5in;line-height:150%"> font-family:" times new roman>Food waste can be considered as a useful,
renewable resource for energy and/or materials production. In this study,
biochars were prepared via pyrolysis of food waste and then used as precursors
for production of activated carbons via physical and chemical activation.
Pyrolysis and activation conditions were varied to optimize the properties of
biochar and activated carbons, respectively. Activated carbons were
characterized by N2 sorption-desorption, scanning electron microscope
(SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), elemental analysis, inductively
coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), X-ray powder diffraction
(XRD), 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier-transform
infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy. Adsorption experiments of
aromatic hydrocarbons were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using the
biochars and activated carbons derived from food waste for the adsorption of
aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene and naphthalene) from water. The activated
carbon with the highest adsorption capacity was prepared via steam activation
at 950 ⁰C
for 1 h. The BET surface area, micropore volume and total pore volume of the
activated carbon was 745 m2/g, 0.185 cm3/g and 0.594 cm3/g,
respectively. The benzene and naphthalene sorption capacity was 460 mg/g and
150 mg/g, respectively. The physicochemical properties and adsorption
capacities of the activated carbons prepared from food waste were also compared
to the corresponding properties and capacities of the activated carbons derived
from miscanthus, as well as commercial activated carbons. Our study revealed
that activated carbons prepared by physical activation of biochars derived from
food waste resources are very promising candidates for water purification with
capacities for aromatic hydrocarbons similar to the ones observed using
commercial activated carbons. The results are presented in the Figure 1 below.

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Figure 1: Adsorption
capacity of naphthalene in activated carbons derived from various resources