(695d) Hydrodeoxygenation of Guaiacol over Ni and Mo Nanoparticles Supported on SBA-15 and ?-Al2O3.

Authors: 
Hewer, T. L. R., University of São Paulo
Lima, R. W. S., Universidade de São Paulo
Giudici, R., University of São Paulo
Schmal, M., University of São Paulo
Alves, R. M. B., University of São Paulo
  1. Introduction

The limitation of fossil energy resources and the increasing need for chemicals and liquid fuels require strong efforts in utilizing renewable energy sources. In this way, a technology such as biomass to liquid fuels (BTL) is being focus. The fast pyrolysis is a promising tool to transform various biomass feedstock's, lignocellulosic biomass, into an energy-dense and oily mixture. However, it possesses considerable amounts of oxygenates molecules, phenolic compounds and water in the material obtained by this method make it impossible to use the final product as motor fuel. For the use in chemical industry or fuel production an upgrading of the pyrolysis oil is necessary, which can be achieved via hydrodeoxygenation (HDO). This process consists in the treatment of bio-oil at temperatures between 200 and 450 ◦C with hydrogen at high pressure (10–300 bar) in the presence of a catalyst, so that the oxygen contained in organic molecules can be extracted with water formation1. Research efforts to study the chemistry of hydrodeoygenation of biomass-derived oil are gaining considerable importace over the last 20 years1.The most frequently examined HDO catalysts commercially used for petroleum hydrotreatment products are NiMo/Al2O3 and CoMo/Al2O3.In the present study catalysts based on supported Ni and Mo are evaluated as catalysts for HDO reaction. The effect of metal phase and support properties, SBA-15 and γ-Al2O3 (reference support), as well as their interactions has been investigated. For the catalytic reactions, guaiacol was chosen as a model compound for lignin depolymerization fragments formed during bio-oil pyrolysis from lignocellulosic biomass.

  1. Methods

The pure mesoporous silica SBA-15 was synthesized by hydrothermal method. The γ-Al2O3 was purchase from Degussa. The bimetallic nickel-molybdenum catalysts were prepared by wet impregnation. First, appropriate quantities of (NH4)6Mo7O24.4H2O and Ni(NO3)2.6H2O were dissolved in deionized water; the support was added and stirred for 2 h. Then, the suspension was freeze dried and the catalyst was calcined at 500 C for 2 h, under air flow. The metal contents were 15% of MoO3 and 5% de NiO (weight percentage) with relation to support. The materials were characterized by nitrogen physisorption isotherms, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and with Raman and infrared spectroscopy. The total acidity of the catalysts was measured by Temperature programmed desorption of NH3 (TPD-NH3). The catalytic tests were carried out in a fixed bed flow reactor system under 15 kgf/cm2 pressure. The catalysis, mass around 200 mg, was pre-treated in situ with 50 cm3/min flow of pure H2 at 500° C for 4 h and then cooled to the reaction temperature (200, 250 or 300° C). The feed mixture consisted of 2% w/w guaiacol (MERCK) in heptane P.A. (Aldrich) with 14.8 cm3/h flow and 100 cm3/min H2 flow. The feed and the products were analyzed by gas chromatography Shimadzu CG17A with FID detector, capillary column CPsil 5CB and automatic injection.

  1. Results and discussion

The fresh catalysts X-Ray diffractogram show that the Ni and Mo were successfully incorporated under the SBA-15 and Al2O3 supports as NiO and MoO3 nanoparticles. After nickel and molybdenum incorporation the surface area of the SBA-15 decrease from 630 to 332 m2.g-1. The same behavior was observed for γ-Al2O3 support, the surface area chance from 279 to 233 m2.g-1. The temperature reduction of Ni and Mo oxide were determined by TPR-H2, 500 °C under H2 atmosphere for 4 hours. The catalysts total acidity for NiMo/SBA and NiMo/ALU were 470 and 548 µmol.g-1, respectively. The results of catalytic activity for both materials are summarized in Table 1. For NiMo/SBA and NiMo/ALU the reaction temperature have a positive effect in guaiacol conversion, the higher results were observed at 300 °C 84.7% and 72.6% for NiMo/SBA and NiMo/ALU, respectively. However, the higher HDO values occurred for reaction temperature at 200°C. Thus, the selectivity for deoxygenated compounds were more pronounced in low temperatures for both catalysts. The principal products formed during the guaiacol HDO reaction were benzene, cyclohexane, cyclohexene, phenol and o-cresol. Compared to NiMo/ALU the NiMo/SBA showed the best performance in HDO, HDA and higher selectivity for benzene in all reaction temperature studied.

Table 1: The catalytic results of NiMo/SBA and NiMo/ALU in the hydrodeoxygenation of guaiacol.

NiMo/SBA

NiMo/ALU

Temperature (°C)

200

250

300

200

250

300

Conversion (%)

3.7

74.5

84.7

5.1

45.0

72.6

HDO (%)

92.1

74.3

66.5

37.9

31.5

30.8

HDA (%)

84.2

48.7

35.3

23.1

12.3

2.7

Selectivity (%)

Benzene

16.7

8.6

1.3

3.3

1.1

0.3

Cyclohexane

29.1

13.9

11.0

6.8

3.3

0.4

Cyclohexene

38.5

26.2

19.5

12.9

7.9

1.9

Phenol

10.5

17.4

34.2

16.3

24.8

41.3

O-Cresol

0.0

18.4

8.0

7.7

8.5

11.3

With the catalysts thermogravimetric analysis were possible quantified the coke formation after HDO reactions. For NiMo/ALU and NiMo/SBA the coke formation were 1,65 and 1.14 mg.gcat-1.h-1.

  1. Conclusions

Compared with NiMo/ALU the NiMo/SBA show the best performance in guaicol conversion, selectivity for deoxigenated compound and in HDO percentage. The principal compounds formed during the HDO reaction with NiMo/SBA were cyclohexene, cyclohexane and bezene. For NiMo/ALU the principal compounds were phenol and o-cresol. Thus, the mesoporous silicon oxide (SBA-15) was the best support for nickel e molybdenum nanoparticles resulting in the catalyst for guaicol hydrodeoxygenation.

References

  • Arun, R.V. Sharma, A.K. Dalai, Renew. Energy Rev., 48 (2015) 240-255.

Keywords

Hydrodeoxygenation, catalysis, nickel, molybdenum.