(620e) Integrating Market Effects into Sustainable Process Design – Application to Urea Production
- Conference: AIChE Annual Meeting
- Year: 2018
- Proceeding: 2018 AIChE Annual Meeting
- Group: Environmental Division
- Time: Thursday, November 1, 2018 - 9:40am-10:05am
The Rectangular Choice-of-Technology (RCOT) framework has been developed to account for those market constraints and multiple technology uses in analyzing economic systems . In the traditional economic input-output model, economic transaction matrix that contain commodity exchanges between economic sectors is the square matrix. In the RCOT model, the transaction matrix becomes the rectangular matrix with additional columns. The additional columns represent multiple technologies that produce the same product. Also, by constraining the maximum available amounts of economic factors, multiple technologies are chosen together to satisfy the market demand in case the cheapest option is not able to satisfy the demand due to the constraints. The RCOT framework has also been applied to process-based life cycle assessment (LCA) model in a value chain scale . However, none of the previous studies applies the RCOT framework to multiscale models and solves engineering design problems.
In this work, the RCOT framework is applied to a multiscale model based on the Process-to-Planet (P2P) framework  to account for the resource availability and environmental regulations in designing process engineering models. A methodology for the RCOT-P2P model and its toy example are described and the RCOT-P2P model is applied to the urea manufacturing process. The urea P2P model has been developed by including inputs from value chain and economy scales to the urea manufacturing engineering model. Those inputs include ammonia and carbon dioxide resources and electricity and natural gas uses. As for multiple technology options, different technologies that produce those inputs are considered. Specifically, different fuel and boiler types for electricity generation, natural gas extraction options between conventional NG and shale gas, different hydrogen sources for ammonia manufacturing, different sources of carbon dioxide are considered as multiple technology choices. The available amounts of relevant economic factors are constrained in limiting each of those technology uses. Also, to account for environmental regulations, environmental interventions, such as emissions and use of natural resources, are constrained as well .
Since this work reflects the market effect by considering economic factors in choosing technologies, this would inform better insights and understanding on how technologies are adopted in certain economic conditions and how they need to be developed. In particular, this work could be beneficial for modeling emerging technologies that need to substitute the conventional one, because emerging technologies will replace the conventional one gradually. Also, since the availability of natural resources can be considered as constraints, this work could be useful for the regional analysis of specific areas where the amounts of resources are limited and for solving spatial optimization problems.
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