Assessment of Neonatal Platelet Dense Granule Trafficking Downstream of Protease-Activated Receptors and P2Y1/ P2Y12 Conference: AIChE Annual MeetingYear: 2017Proceeding: 2017 AIChE Annual MeetingGroup: Student Poster SessionsSession: Undergraduate Student Poster Session: Food, Pharmaceutical, and Biotechnology Time: Monday, October 30, 2017 - 10:00am-12:30pm Assessment of neonatal platelet dense granule trafficking downstream of protease-activated receptors and P2Y1/ P2Y12 Kendra R. Jones,1 Anh T. P. Ngo,2 Annachiara Mitrugno,2 Anne D. Rocheleau,2 Sandra Baker-Groberg,2 Joseph E. Aslan,2 Stewart Worthington,3 Alysia Cox,3 Susan Lattimore,3 Michael Recht,3 Kristina M. Haley,3 Owen J. T. McCarty2 1School of Chemical, Biological, and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR 3The Hemophilia Center, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR Introduction: Platelet dense granule secretion follows activation of protease-activated receptors (PARs) 1 and 4 in human platelets to result in ADP release with subsequent signaling of the ADP receptors P2Y1/P2Y12 and amplification of adult platelet activation and aggregation2,3. Neonatal platelets are hyporesponsive to multiple platelet agonists as compared to adult platelets. These mechanisms are unknown, yet neonates do not manifest a clinical bleeding tendency. Our group has shown that neonatal platelets (neonatelets) are hyporesponsive to the PAR1 agonist, thrombin receptor activator peptide 6 (TRAP-6), in comparison to adult platelets. Therefore, we hypothesize that the hyporesponsivity in neonates is due to either a deficiency in platelet dense granule function and thus ADP release, and/or a lack of synergy between P2Y1/P2Y12 and PARs. This study aimed to investigate: 1) dense granule trafficking and release, and 2) PAR cleavage using small volume, whole blood samples. Blood was tested using two novel assays developed by our group; a super-resolution structured illumination microscopy (SR-SIM) and chemiluminescent secretion assay. We also utilized fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACs) to assess synergy between P2Y12 and PARs by detecting markers of platelet activation. Materials and Methods: In accordance with an Institutional Review Board-approved protocol, fresh adult blood was obtained from healthy donors by venipuncture into 3.8% sodium citrate, and fresh full-term neonatal blood was collected at 24 hours of life via heel stick into trisodium citrate (0.38% w/v). Glass bottom dishes were coated with Poly-L-lysine and seeded with adult or neonatal whole blood previously fixed and diluted with 4% paraformaldehyde. Samples were stained with platelet dense granule marker (CD63), PAR1 (ATAP2), PAR4 (14H6) and imaged using 100x SR-SIM. Platelet dense granule release was measured as light output generated following an ATP-luciferase reaction. Additionally, FACS was performed using whole blood treated with TRAP-6, ADP, AYPGKF (PAR4 agonist), or a combination of ADP and TRAP-6/AYPGKF, and labeled for CD62P and PAC-1. Total platelet glycoprotein (GP) expression was measured using a BioCytex kit. Results and Discussion: Both dense granule trafficking via SR-SIM and the luminescent assay suggest that neonatal dense granule secretion was unresponsive to PAR1/PAR4 activation. Exogenous ADP appears to rescue the PARs response, but not significantly when compared to the signal for ADP response alone. Additionally, flow cytometry results demonstrate GP expression does not differ in adults and neonates, indicating that the hyposensitivity to PAR1 agonists is likely physiological. Conclusion: Our hyposensitivity results suggest that neonatal dense granule trafficking and secretion following PARs activation is impaired, when compared to adult platelets. These results provide a potential explanation for hyposensitivity to PAR agonists, and provides insight into platelet granules and synergy between PARs and P2Y12. References: (1) Andrew M, et al. Blood 1992; 80:1998-2005. (2) Falker K, et al. Biochemical Journal 2011; 436: 469-480. (3) Nylander S, et al. British Journal of Pharmacology 2004; 142: 1325-1331. (4) Baker-Groberg SM, et al. Thrombosis and Haemostasis; 14: 815-27.