(765d) Synthesis and Characterization of Plasmon-Resonant Hollow Gold Nanoshells
Adsorption of picosecond NIR light pulses induces large, transient temperature increases in the HGN, which in turn generate transient vapor nanobubbles, similar to the cavitation bubbles generated by ultrasound. The nanobubbles can be used to rupture endosomes, liposomes and even entire cells. We show that the threshold laser fluence needed to initiate nanobubbles increases linearly with HGN radius at a given wavelength for HGN with similar adsorption maxima. Higher fluence is required for NIR wavelengths off resonance, which allows us to differentiate HGN with different adsorption maxima using a combination of NIR wavelength and laser fluence to initiate nanobubble formation. When continuous NIR irradiation is used we find that the temperature difference between the nanoparticle and the surroundings is minimal and there is little difference in performance between HGN of different sizes and shapes and differentiating between various HGN based on wavelength or fluence is difficult.