(760b) Rapid and Facile PET-Activation of Preformed Phthalocyanine-Nanoparticles for Imaging Applications

Authors: 
Wang, L. Z., Princeton University
Lu, H. D., Princeton University
Wilson, B. K., Princeton University
McManus, S. A., Princeton University
Padakanti, P., University of Pennsylvania
Alavi, A., Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine
Mach, R., University of Pennsylvania
Prud'homme, R. K., Princeton University

Early detection of tumors is
key to the success of clinical intervention and patient outcomes. Thus, there
is strong demand to develop diagnostic technologies that can detect
Alzheimer’s, infections, and cancers at earlier stages when the disease is most
manageable.  Positron emission tomography
(PET) is currently among the most sensitive imaging modalities for cancer
diagnostics but require radionucleotide localization to targeted areas.
Nanoparticle (NP) contrast agents can drastically increase local concentrations
of radionuclides, lowering the detection limit and increasing the sensitively of
PET imaging to enable detection of small and early-stage cancers that would
otherwise be overlooked. However, previous methods to load NPs with PET
radionuclides for in vivo imaging
require harsh loading conditions or NP surface modifications that alter or
diminish targeting abilities. We here present the technology for encapsulating
phthalocyanine dyes inside water dispersible and polyethylene coated (PEG) NPs,
using the self-assembly technique Flash Nanoprecipitation. Under the very mild
conditions at pH6 and 37 C, these phthalocyanine NPs rapidly and spontaneously
chelate metals, and can act as sinks for PET radionuclides, such as 64Cu,
to produce PET-active NPs (Fig. 1). By
measuring the absorbance shifts of the encapsulated dye over time, we developed
a reaction rate model that can be used to predict chelation rates of
non-radioactive ‘cold’ metals with given reaction parameters. This model was
then verified with radioactive ‘hot’ metals, where chelation efficiency could
be assessed directly by measuring NP radioactivity. We demonstrated that,
within three hours, 762 NPs could chelate radioactive 64Cu with 98%
efficiency, and retained > 90% activity even after incubation with
ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid for 12 hours (Fig. 2). This result matched perfectly with the previous reaction
rate model and demonstrates the use of dye absorbance shifts to accurately
predict and optimize chelation reaction conditions, reducing the number of
radioactive procedures required.  This
development, optimization, and verification of a rapid and facile radionuclide
labeling method promises to increase sensitivity and expand applications of
NP-based PET imaging.