(275g) Catalytic Conversion of Biomass Derived Lactones into Fuels and Chemicals

Haider, M. A., Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi
Alam, M. I., Indian Institute of Technology Delhi
Gupta, S., Indian Institute of Technology Delhi
Bohre, A., Delhi University
Ahmad, E., Indian Institute of Technology Delhi
Saha, B., University of Delhi
Khan, T. S., Indian Institute of Technology Delhi

conversion of biomass derived lactones into fuels and chemicals

Imteyaz Alam*, Shelaka Guptaa, Ashish Bohreb,
Ejaz Ahmada, Tuhin S. Khana, Basudeb Sahab,c,
M. Ali Haidera

a. REC
Lab, Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi,
Hauz Khas, Delhi 110016, India

Laboratory of Catalysis, Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi, Delhi
110007, India

Catalysis Center for Energy Innovation, University of Delaware, Newark, DE
19713, USA

+91-11-26591016, Fax: +91-11-2658-2037

E-mail: imteyaz84@gmail.com


6-amyl-α-pyrone (6PP) is a fermentation derived unsaturated lactone having considerable
potential to be developed as a platform chemical. Due to the presence of
different functional moities and the position of double bond in the ring,
myriad of reactions can be performed giving useful chemicals. For instance, ring-opening
and decarboxylation of 6PP  in water yielded
non-2-en-4-one (1) (Figure 1a) with 95% conversion and nearly 60% selectivity
at 498 K,  without using any
catalyst. The activation barrier was calculated to be 180 kJ/mol in presence of
water using DFT, which compares well with the experimental apparent activation
barrier of 166 kJ/mol. The selectivity of decarboxylated product was further enhanced using acidic silica-alumina and γ-alumina
giving around 65% selectivity and 75% conversion at a reduced temperature of 463
K.  The measured apparent activation energy for γ-alumina (
99 kJ/mol) was comparable to the DFT calculated intrinsic endothermicity of the
proton transfer step 98 kJ/mol (Figure 1b), which was essential for obtaining
the ring-opened intermediate. The hydrogenation of non-2-en-4-one over
Pd/C catalyst was further experimented
to yield 4-nonanone (3) which can serve as a solvent or an intermediate for
other reactions. In order to produce longer chain hydrocarbons of diesel and
jet fuel ranged fuels, mixed oxide (CaO-MgO) was synthesized and utilized as a
catalyst for the C-C coupling reaction via aldol condensation reaction. The
condensation of nonanone with furfural and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) over
CaO-MgO yielded upto 40% (5) and 60% (4) of the branched aldol products at 443
and 393 K (Figure 1a), which may further be hydrogenated to give liquid
transportation fuel. Furthermore, 6PP along with other 2-pyrones with its
structural analogous was allowed for the direct hydrogenatiopn using alkali
metal hydride. Up to 73% of corresponding hydric alcohol from 6PP was obtained
when the reaction was performed in dry tetrhydrofuran under nitrogen

Figure 1. a) Reaction mechanism
for the production of  C15 fuel additives from 6PP, b) reaction energy diagram
for the ring-opening of 6pp in water and c) acid catalysed system of γ-alumina.