(190a) A Multi-Stake Holder Approach for the Optimal Planning and Integration of the Supply Chain of Fuels Involving CO2 Capture
The global energy demand currently is satisfied by fossil fuels, which can cause environmental problems such as the global warming. Several alternatives to reduce carbon emissions during energy production have been proposed, for instance the solar energy use, biofuels production and carbon capture technologies. One the main reasons to use biomass is that this raw material can capture most of the CO2 emitted by biofuels. Additionally, the carbon emissions caused by the fuels production can be captured by forest biomass, which can be seen as a carbon capturing industry. Therefore, a system capable to integrate the fuels based on biomass and fossil resources as well as a carbon capture system through forest plantations is an attractive alternative. Nevertheless, there are several involved players such as biomass producers, society, government and businessmen with diverse priorities. Thus, this paper proposes a mathematical formulation for the optimal planning and integration of a fuel production system considering carbon capturing under a multi-stakeholder scheme. The carbon capture is proposed to be accomplished via forest plantations, which can receive a monetary benefit from the pollutant industries. The multi-stakeholder approach contemplates benefits and affectations in each one of the entities of the involved supply chains, and determining how the interactions between the different stakeholders take place. The present methodology takes into account profits and number of new jobs obtained by biorefineries, refineries and forest plantations, as well as the net emissions caused by the system. Also, the methodology contemplates features such as the project life time, bioresources availability, amounts and type of products to be produced, involved plantsâ location and capacity. The mathematical model was applied to a case study from Mexico considering a set of locations for biorefineries, forest plantations, refineries, distribution centers, biomass suppliers and well oils. Furthermore, diverse processing technologies and types for bioresources were considered. On the other hand, the multi-stakeholder approach considered 20 individual stakeholders, which are associated to diverse weight factors generated systematically in order to define priorities. Results are presented through several points in a 3D figure with net emissions, generated jobs and economic objective function as axes. Each point represents a supply chain configuration with a dissatisfaction value in comparison with the reported and utopic solutions. This way, this approach allows proposing a solution with the lowest dissatisfaction ratio taken into account diverse interests. Finally, the model consists of 6,407 continuous variables, 2,161 binary variables and 5,431 constraints. It was coded in the GAMS software. This model was solved using the solver CPLEX with a computer with a processor Intel Core i7 at 2.90 GHz with 16 GB of RAM. The average CPU time for each solution of the mathematical approach was around 0.156 s.