(535a) Pendant Drops and Liquid Jets in Miscible Environments
AIChE Annual Meeting
Wednesday, November 16, 2016 - 12:30pm to 12:45pm
The spreading of liquids is a classical problem in
interfacial fluid mechanics and, historically, the examination has been limited
to immiscible systems. We have reported previously on our studies and
observations of the spreading of sessile drops in miscible environments, which
have distinctly different shape evolution and power law dynamics from sessile
drops that spread in immiscible environments. We have extended this work to
include the shape evolution of pendant drops and liquid jets existing in a
miscible environment. By examining pendant drops and liquid jets, the need to
account for surface energies arising from a solid-fluid interface, as in the sessile
drop problem, is eliminated.
As time evolves, diffusion across the miscible
liquid-liquid boundary proceeds due to the chemical potential difference
between the two initially distinct, homogeneous phases. Diffusion, in turn,
imparts a time-dependence to the properties of the liquids in the diffusive
region – notably the density, viscosity, and interfacial tension –
that influence the shape evolution. It was found for sessile drops in a
miscible environment that gravitational forces dominate the spreading process,
and is expected for pendant drops and liquid jets as well.
A series of liquid pairs have been studied (corn
syrup-water, glycerol-water, glycerol-ethanol, tricresyl
phosphate-ethanol). Various volumes of droplets, and diameters and flow rates
of liquid jets have been considered.
Figure 1: Image sequence taken in time of a corn syrup
pendant drop immersed in water. A strand emanates from the apex of the drop and
continues to flow as the entire drop descends and elongates.
Particle tracking velocimetry
has been performed to identify the internal flow pattern of the pendant drops
and liquid jets.
Figure 2: Image from a particle tracking velocimetry experiment of a corn syrup pendant drop
immersed in water. The corn syrup contains 6 μm
microspheres at a concentration of 10-3 g/ml, which scatter incident light. The
arrows indicate velocity vectors obtained from particle movement. Motion was
largely restricted to the corn syrup-water interface. Particles within the
pendant drop and away from the liquid-liquid interface move with the drop as it
descends and elongates; within the reference frame of the drop, these interior
particles do not move significantly.