(502b) An Educational Matlab App for Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Modeling of ACE-Inhibition

The goal of this project was to introduce engineering design and the discipline of chemical engineering to incoming freshmen through an interactive, hands-on activity. Our project focused on the development and instruction of an interactive MATLAB simulation app inspired by research interests in the hormone Angiotensin II and its effects on kidney cells during diabetes. Angiotensin II raises blood pressure. Several pharmaceuticals known as Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are on the market to block Angiotensin II production to lower the blood pressure. The chemical reactions involved in natural production of Angiotensin II and the biological response to pharmaceuticals to lower blood pressure in a time- and dose-dependent manner were modeled in MATLAB and packaged into an easy-to-use app. This app can be utilized in other educational contexts such as chemical kinetics courses and introductions to chemical and biomedical engineering applications. We give a brief example of how the app was adapted for use in the chemical reaction engineering junior level chemical kinetics course. The presentation primarily focuses on the use of the app during the 2015 & 2016 Oklahoma State University College of Engineering, Architecture and Technology (CEAT) Summer Bridge Program, a three-week preparatory program designed to guide incoming freshmen through the transition from high school to college. Through this project, the students were exposed to chemical and biomedical engineering design principles and gained problem solving experience.

The mathematical models in this study describe the change in drug concentration over time as well as the Angiotensin II levels over time. The models use pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic relationships and were packaged into an interactive Graphical User Interface (GUI) in MATLAB. The students in the Summer Bridge Program used the app to design optimal pharmaceutical dose amounts and frequencies needed for lowering blood pressure using two different ACE inhibitors (Benazapril and Cilazapril) in patients with either normal or impaired kidney function. Plots were generated for the drug and Angiotensin II concentrations over time. These plots were analyzed and evaluated by the students to make an educated decision as to the optimal dosage conditions for their virtual patient. In addition to the use of the simulation, the students participated in activities to introduce basic calculus, differential equations, and coding to give the students a better understanding of the simulation functionality and its connections to their basic engineering and mathematics coursework.

The students were assigned specific drug types and virtual patient kidney functions and asked to design the optimal dosage and frequency for those cases. After they decided on a final design, the students were asked to create a short report and presentation to convey their results and learning outcomes to their peers. Overall, the students seemed to enjoy seeing pharmaceutical applications of chemical and biomedical engineering as well as having the aspect of creative decision making throughout the project.

Through use of the MATLAB app, students practiced open-ended engineering design, connected calculus and coding to solve realistic engineering problems, constructed a scientific presentation, practiced public speaking, and gave feedback on peersâ?? presentations. This app is a useful tool for students to gain familiarity with chemical and biomedical engineering concepts including design, without having significant background training.