(42d) Power Management in Microgrids with Controllable Loads and Energy Exchange Commitments
In this work, we focus on the dispatch of a microgrid given a unit commitment and energy exchange schedule (i.e. energy exchange should lie between some upper and lower bound in each hour). In particular, a case study is considered for a prototype microgrid consisting of a bi-directional connection to the macrogrid, photovoltaics, microturbines, a battery bank, flexible air conditioning, and an auxiliary electric boiler. We propose and formulate a nonlinear economic model predictive control (E-MPC) problem for this system to regulate indoor air temperature, supply electricity and hot water demands, and satisfy the scheduled energy exchange bounds. This E-MPC problem can be resolved frequently so that disturbances due to weather and load forecasting errors are rejected.
Then, a dynamic microgrid and building thermal model is built in the Simulink software environment to test this control approach. We analyze the performance in terms of operational cost, utilization of available PV power, satisfaction of energy exchange bounds, and thermal comfort for occupants. Particular attention is paid to the ability to capture the important nonlinear dynamics in the E-MPC while maintaining a practical solution time. The benefit of incorporating flexible loads (i.e. the AC unit and auxiliary boiler) and leveraging the natural thermal inertia of building elements is also addressed.
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