(234d) Human and Eco-Toxicological Impacts of the Photovoltaic Lead and Tin Perovskites









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Ines Benmessaoud
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2016-05-10T15:16:00Z
2016-05-10T15:16:00Z
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Human and
eco-toxicological impacts of the photovoltaic lead and tin perovskites

I. R. Benmessaoud1,6, R.
P. J. Bevers2, M. Cornaglia3, L. Mouchiroud4,
S. C. Kilchenmann5, A-L. Mahul-Mellier6, M. Gijs3,
J. Auwerx4, B. Deplancke2, H. A. Lashuel6 and
L. Forrò1

1Laboratory of Physics of
Complex Matter, Ecole Polytechnique
Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), 1015 Lausanne,
Switzerland.

2Laboratory of Systems
Biology and Genetics, EPFL, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.

3Laboratory of Microsystems,
EPFL, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.

4Laboratory of Integrative
Systems Physiology, EPFL, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.

5Laboratory of Life
Sciences Electronics, EPFL, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.

6Laboratory of
Molecular and Chemical Biology of Neurodegeneration,
EPFL, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.

Abstract:

In the past 5 years, halide perovskites
offer compelling optoelectronic applications1,2
and represent a promising class of photovoltaic solar cell3
compounds due to the high photon to electron conversion efficiency, its low
price, and the simplicity of device architectures. The CH3NH3PbI3,
or MAPbI3, was the most commonly used and developed material.
Nevertheless, its lead content raised much more concerns4 regarding
health hazards during handling and processing, as well as its potential toxic
release into the environment. Therefore, active research in materials science,
chemistry and physics is currently developing novel materials, including CH3NH3SnI3,
or MASnI3, to unravel the hazards of lead. However, tin is a heavy metal
known to be toxic in specific forms5-7. Here, we report the negative
effects that both MAPbI3 and MASnI3 can cause in vitro and normal">in vivo. We found a stronger negative influence of the tin compound
not only on human cells physiology, where lung cells become giant and
polynucleated, but also on life span, development and fertility of small model
organisms, i.e. Drosophila melanogaster
and Caenorhabditis normal">elegans. These results justify the potential hazards of large-scale
production of MAPbI3 and/or MASnI3, and invite the
photovoltaic community to take safety measures and to amplify research on
encapsulation systems to prevent the release of the materials into the
environment.

References:

1.              Luo, J.
et al. Water photolysis at 12.3% efficiency via perovskite
photovoltaics and Earth-abundant catalysts. Science
345, 1593–1596 (2014).

2.              Xing, G. et al. Low-temperature
solution-processed wavelength-tunable perovskites for lasing. Nat. Mater. 13,
476–480 (2014).

3.              Lee, et al. Efficient Hybrid Solar
Cells Based on Meso-Superstructured Organometal Halide Perovskites. Science 338, 643–647 (2012).

4.              Benmessaoud, I. R. et al. Health
hazards of methylammonium lead iodide based perovskites: cytotoxicity studies. Toxicol.
Res. 5, 407–419 (2016).

5.              Browne, R. C. Encyclopaedia of
Occupational Health and Safety Vol. II/L-Z. Br. J. Ind. Med.
31, 75 (1974).

6.              Blunden, S. & Wallace, T. Tin
in canned food: a review and understanding of occurrence and effect. Food Chem.
Toxicol. 41, 1651–1662 (2003).

7.              Jiang, G. et al. Pathological
observation of lung injury in experimental animals induced by non-ferrous metal
(tin) dusts. J. Ind. Hyg. Occup.
Dis. 30, 561–566 (2012).