(584a) Optimal CO2 Capture and Utilization (CCU) Supply Chain Network for Enhanced Oil Recovery
More than 60% of the total anthropogenic CO2 emissions in the U.S. are emitted from stationary sources such as power plants, iron and steel industries, cement plants, chemical plants, refineries, gas processing plants, petrochemicals, etc. While CO2 capture and storage (CCS)  shows potential to reduce CO2 emissions from these sources, several challenges must be addressed before large-scale CCS becomes a reality. One major challenge is the lack of sufficient economic drivers to deploy CO2 capture in power and chemical industries. Although it is possible to reduce 50–80% of the current stationary emissions in the U.S. through the optimal design of a nationwide CO2 capture, utilization and sequestration (CCUS) supply chain network , even the most advanced and optimized materials and processes would cost more than $35/ton of CO2 captured and compressed [2,3]. While significant efforts [2–10] have been made to reduce the cost of CO2 capture and compression from stationary sources, the cost of CO2capture remains high.
To this end, utilizing anthropogenic CO2 from stationary sources for enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) can be an influential economic driver to encourage CO2 capture and utilization. In fact, many of the stationary CO2 sources in the U.S. are close to oil and gas reservoirs. CO2-EOR potentially enables incremental oil recovery up to 15% of the original oil in place (OOIP). The amount of oil that can be recovered through CO2-EOR is currently estimated to be almost 400 billion barrels in the U.S. alone . Opportunities exist to supplement and eventually replace the naturally occurring CO2 with CO2 from anthropogenic sources for enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR).
In this work, we propose a novel CO2 Capture and Utilization (CCU) supply chain network model to integrate nationwide, statewide or regional CO2 capture and CO2-EOR activities. While doing so, we consider simultaneous selection of source plants, capture technologies, capture materials, CO2 pipelines, locations of CO2-EOR sites, and CO2 utilization amounts. The objective is to maximize the net profit from the CCU supply chain network, while satisfying the minimum CO2 demands for CO2-EOR. The net profit is obtained by including the total annual revenue minus the total annualized cost of constructing and operating the entire CCU supply chain network. The revenue from CO2 utilization through CO2-EOR would be generated from selling high purity CO2 to the prospective CO2-EOR sites, and the total CCU cost for a source is calculated by combining the investment, operating and materials costs of flue gas dehydration, CO2 capture, compression, transportation and injection to CO2-EOR sites. The overall network not only maximizes the profit from CCU activities, it also contributes to the overall reduction of CO2emissions from the stationary sources.
The novel features of our CCU supply chain network model include: (1) large network of CO2 pipelines connecting the sources, capture plants and CO2-EOR sites, (2) selection of sources and utilization sites to maximize the overall profit from CO2 utilization, (3) simultaneous selection of capture materials and technologies with variable CO2 capture amounts, (4) rigorous modeling, simulation and optimization of flue gas dehydration, CO2 capture and compression, and transportation alternatives to obtain CCU costs, (5) no CO2 sequestration in saline formations, (6) CO2 capture with variable CO2 recovery, instead of considering a minimum specification of 90% on CO2 recovery, and (7) consideration of real geographic locations of sources and utilization sites, reliable estimates of CO2 emissions and demands. Each selected source in the CCU network supplies to one or multiple CO2-EOR sites to satisfy different CO2 utilization demands. The CO2 recovery from a source can be adjusted based on the demand of nearby CO2-EOR sites. We show that such flexibility in CO2 recovery significantly reduces the overall CCU costs and increases the net profit. Through designing nationwide, statewide and regional CCU supply chain networks, we also quantitatively demonstrate the applicability of CO2-EOR in reducing CO2 emissions in an economically viable manner. The proposed network of CO2 pipelines would also enable CO2transportation between sources and utilization sites which are located apart from each other by as far as 200 miles.
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