(305d) Experimental & Numerical Investigation of Bipolar Charging in a Hopper-Chute Assembly

Authors: 
Sarkar, S., University of Connecticut
Gupta, V., University of Connecticut
Naik, S. S., University of Connecticut
Sharma, V., Univesity of Connecticut
Peri, P., US Food & Drug Administration
Chaudhuri, B., University of Connecticut
Mukherjee, R., UConn

Bipolar charging, which is a special class of tribocharging is defined as procuring two opposite polarities on different sized particles of the same material (usually, smaller particles getting negatively charged and ,bigger particles getting positively charged). In an attempt to explain this unusual bipolar charging behaviour, various groups have presented hypothesis based on the differences in the adsorbed impurities and surface roughness of different sized particles. The purpose of the study is to investigate the same, using various analytical tools ranging from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Time of Flight- Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS), Energy Dispersive Using X-Ray analysis (EDEX), Interferometer-Profilometer study, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Dynamic Vapor Sorption (DVS). After thoroughly mapping the surfaces of various materials, Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations were performed on these materials to calculate the work function values and the effect of adsorbed impurities on the same. Hopper-chute flow experiments were conducted to study the possibility of bipolar charging due to third body interaction. 

A major difference in the amount of water sorption (smaller particles sorbing ca. 10 times more water as compared to bigger particles) was observed. No significant differences in the surface or bulk impurities (XPS, ToF-SIMS, EDEX) or in surface roughness (Interferometer-profilometer and SEM) was found. Accordingly DFT calculations were performed on molecular slabs with and without water to study the effect of adsorbed water on the work-function values. Water sorption was found to lower the work function values of the smaller particles due to formation of dense electron cloud on the surface from the oxygen’s lone pair of electrons as follows. Work-function of; MCC: 6.15eV, MCC with adsorbed water: 5.94 eV, Lactose: 6.29 eV and Lactose with adsorbed water: 6.06 eV. Water sorption on smaller particles leads to lowering of work function values, which suggests that electron transfer is not the sole or most dominant mechanism behind bipolar charging and there is a significant involvement of other mechanisms such as ion transfer in the process. Hence bipolar charging might be a result of preferential adsorption of negatively charged OH- ions on smaller particles due to higher surface area and greater water sorption on the same.