(708c) Post-Synthetic Functionalization of Magnesium Metal-Organic Framework With Tetraethylene Pentamine for CO2 Adsorption

Su, X., Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Hatton, T. A., Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Simeon, F., Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Huq, A., Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Speakman, S. A., Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a
class of microporous and mesoporous materials with great potential in gas
adsorption and separation. MOFs are composed of organic linkers coordinated to
metal centers, and produce open-framework structures that rank among the
materials with the highest surface areas currently available. Amongst the
metal-organic frameworks used for carbon dioxide adsorption, Mg-MOF-74 is an
interesting option to study due to its very high equilibrium and dynamic
uptake, the economic feasibility of its reagents as well as its ease of
synthesis.1-2 Its cylindrical pores and unsaturated metal centers
can adsorb between 21-26% CO2, and represents one of the solid-state
adsorbents with the highest capacity for CO2.

Post-synthetic functionalization of MOFs
is a technique to impart properties inaccessible by direct synthesis. For gas
adsorption applications, functionalization with amines plays an interesting
role due to their ability to improve adsorption behavior of MOFs under
different conditions.3 We grafted the Mg-MOF-74 with tetra-ethylene
pentamine (TEPA, a multi-unit amine), in order to study its interaction with
the framework and its effect on the CO2 adsorption. Multi-unit
amines (similar to poly-ethylene-imines) have been shown recently to provide
high carbon dioxide uptake capacity as well as regenerability over multiple
cycles.4 We expect that through functionalization of longer-chain
amines, to improve adsorption over current ethylene diamine studies, since one
amine and one Mg-site are lost during the grafting process, whereas for TEPA,
we gain one primary amine and 3 secondary amines.

Gas adsorption testing on our MOF/TEPA
materials suggests that CO2 total uptake capacity is dependent on
amine loading. CO2 uptake is reduced over the parent MOF when amines
are put in excess, but improved when limiting amine is added. The crystal
structure from XRD seems to be identical pre- and post-functionalization, as
well as pre-post-capture.  After functionalization in excess amine, the
surface elemental analysis through XPS gives C55.98%N16.82%O22.5%Mg4.71%
and C54.03%N19.38%Mg4.52%O21.7%.
The ratio of N/Mg is around 5, which indicates that each surface Mg-site has a
tetra-ethylene pentamine grafted onto it. We speculate that the surface
Mg-sites are all grafted, but the large amount of amines induces pore-blocking
which reduces bulk CO2 mass transfer. We grafted the equivalent of
1% of the excess amount of amines, and the surface composition became C54.03%N10.77%Mg7.15%O28.05%,
with improved CO2 uptake over Mg-MOF-74.

Neutron powder diffraction studies are
currently being carried out to investigate the crystal structure of the
post-synthetically functionalized MOF. We attempt to identify the location
within the unit cell of the amines and their conformation, as well as potential
sites for CO2 adsorption. We expect detailed diffraction studies
will allow us to draw structure-performance relationships, and gain
understanding on the adsorption mechanisms behind adsorption of CO2
on amine-functionalized MOFs.




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