(583bf) Effects of Cs-Exchanged Heteropolyacid (CsxH3-xPW12O40) On the Hydrocracking of Extra-Heavy Oil

Eom, H. J., Korea University
Lee, K. Y., Korea University
Kim, S., Korea University
Hur, Y., Korea University

The global demand for
crude oil which has limited reserves in the nature has changed radically in the
first years of the 21st Century. It is due to Emerging Countries such as China
and India etc., whose dynamic economies resulted in a remarkable 1.8% global
growth in demand for crude oil in 2009. However, easy drilling oil or
high-quality light crude oil such as gasoline, diesel and naphtha reserves had
reached their limits. Accordingly, various efforts have been tried to solve the
problem of lack of crude oil. There is growing interest for non-conventional
oil such as extra-heavy oil, residue and bitumen as a way to solve the shortage
of crude oil. The extra-heavy oil and bitumen are estimated to have about 5.4
trillion barrels of oil reserves. So the petroleum industry is increasingly
concerned about extra-heavy oil processing. Such extra-heavy oils are
characterized by a low API gravity (<10°Æ) which is denser than water and contain excess of
asphaltene, sulfur and metals such nickel and vanadium etc. Due to these poor
qualities, many problems has been encountered while the upgrading process.

In upgrading process of
heavy oil, the supported catalysts were generally used. In extra-heavy oil
hydrocracking process, however, it cannot be used anymore. Because,
pore-plugging problem and chemical deactivation were occurred due to the excess
of coke, sulfur and metal contaminants in reactant. These deposited
metal and coke cause a decrease in the number of catalytic active site, hinder
the transport of reacting molecules to the internal catalyst surface. And
eventually cause the complete plugging of catalyst pore. Recently, hydrocracking
reaction using non-supported catalysts have been studied by many researchers in
an effort to overcome the chemical and physical problem associated with
supported catalysts.

In this study, we chose
Cs substituted Heteropolyacid catalyst as candidate dispersed catalyst, and
applied to extra-heavy oil hydrocracking. We prepared with a variation of
cesium contents (x=0, 1, 2, 2.25, 2.5, 2.75, 3) using an ion-exchanged
method and high temperature (500°ÆC) calcination. This study was performed to clarify
the two factors, first is thermal stability of Heteropolyacid catalysts at high
reaction temperature. Second is determining the optimum Cs content and key
catalytic properties of extra-heavy oil hydrocracking, through the analysis of ICP, XRD, TGA, BET, FT-IR, NH3-TPD.

The catalysts which are substituted by Cesium more
than 1.8 keep keggin structure in the high temperature (500°) calcination. And
as Cs substitution, Heteropolyacid physical and chemical properties change
dramatically. Especially, the surface acid sites of Cs2.2 (18.0) increase more
than about 3.2 times than HPW (5.5). Among the tested catalysts, Cs2.2 shows the highest
activity with the largest surface acid sites. After the hydrocracking reaction using a
Cs exchange Heteropolyacid, oil qualities were drastically increased. C/H ratio
and API gravity value improved more than 8.1 and 16°Æ (the value corresponding
to the heavy crude oil) respectably and obtained more than 90% HDM conversion. The correlation clearly shows that hydrocracking of
extra-heavy oil is closely related to the surface acid sites of the catalyst.

Figure 1. FT-IR spectra of HPW (treatment at 300°ÆC) and Cesium-exchanged Heteropolyacid (CsxH3-xPW12O40, x=0, 0.9, 1.8,
2.2, 2.4, 2.6, 2.9) after treatment at 500°ÆC

Figure 2. Surface acid sites of Cs-exchanged Heteropolyacid (CsxH3-xPW12O40, x=0, 0.9, 1.8,
2.2, 2.4, 2.6, 2.9) and pressure change during the

Figure 3. The product yield classified as gas, liquid
(Naphtha, Middle distillate, Gas oil, Residue based on the results of SIMDIS)
and solid for CsxH3-xPW12O40 (x=0, 0.9, 1.8, 2.2, 2.4, 2.6, 2.9).



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