(580f) Study on Pyrolysis Properties of Agriculture Residues by Using FTIR and DRIFT Technique | AIChE

(580f) Study on Pyrolysis Properties of Agriculture Residues by Using FTIR and DRIFT Technique


Fu, P. - Presenter, Shandong University of Technology
Yi, W., Shandong University of Technology
Li, Z., Shandong University of Technology
Bai, X., Shandong University of Technology
Wang, J., Shandong University of Technology

Study on pyrolysis properties of agriculture residues by using FTIR and
DRIFT technique

Peng Fu, Weiming Yi*, Zhihe Li*, Xueyuan Bai, Yanmei Li, Jing Wang

School of
Agricultural and Food Engineering, Shandong
University of Technology, Zibo 255049, China

*Corresponding author. Tel.: +86 533 2786308; Fax: +86 533 2786158


The gas release properties and char structural evolution during pyrolysis
of agricultural residues (maize stalk, rice straw and cotton straw) was studied
with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and diffuse reflectance
infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT).

The results showed that the pyrolysis processes underwent three
consecutive stages, corresponding to the evaporation of water, the formation of
primary volatiles and the subsequent release of small molecular gases. Fig. 1
showed that the major pyrolysis gases for the three materials were similar,
including CO2, CO, methane, ethane, and some organics such
as methanol, formaldehyde, formic acid, acetic acid and acetone.
HCN was the major nitrogen containing product. The
release of CO2 mostly focused in the temperature range of 250?450 oC.
It was mainly released out with the cracking and reforming of carbonyl and
carboxyl groups. The evolution of CO started at ≈ 230 oC,
increased significantly with rising temperature, and reached a maximum at 337,
301 and 339 oC for maize stalk, rice straw and cotton straw
respectively. The formation of CO below 400 oC was mainly caused by
the cracking and reforming of thermolabile carbonyl and ether groups. The
release of CO above 450 oC was probably due to the scissions of
diaryl ether groups and secondary reactions of decomposition of the char. Compared
with CO and CO2, CH4 evolution covered over a wider
temperature range of 300?600 oC, with a maximum at about 420 oC.
The formation of methane below 500 oC was mainly attributed to the
cracking of the methoxyl groups. Moreover, the breaking
of methylene groups in the temperature range could also
contribute to the formation of CH4. The release of methane at higher
temperatures might be ascribed to the rupture of aromatic rings. The aliphatic
?CH2OH groups in ?γ position of the alkyl side chains and
aromatic methoxyl groups were the main source of methanol. The reforming of
free hydroxyl groups and C?O groups could also generate methanol. The formation
of formaldehyde at lower temperatures indicated that the aliphatic ?CH2OH
groups might be easily removed by alkyl C?C fragmentation.

To investigate the changes
in the surface chemistry of chars formed during biomass pyrolysis, information
on the surface chemistry of raw samples and chars has been provided by DRIFT
spectroscopy. The DRIFT spectra of rice straw and chars given in Fig. 2 showed that the amount of hydroxyl (3200?3700 cm-1), aliphatic C-H groups (2800?3000 cm-1) and olefinic C=C bonds (1610?1680 cm-1) in the chars decreased significantly when the temperature exceeded 250 oC. The amount of C=O (1650?1770 cm-1) and ether structures in the chars first gradually decreases and then
increases with the temperature rising. The aromatic structure develops when the temperature was higher than 350 oC.
Aromatization was also
evidenced by the shift to lower frequencies of the bands due to ν(C=O) and olefinic ν(C=C) vibrations. This behavior was consistent with the
increase in conjugation of C=O groups and C=C bonds. At 500 oC, the char contained large amounts of aromatic and ether type structures. With the further increase of
temperature, the amount of ether
groups in the char decreases and the char became increasingly polyaromatic. The loss of ether groups led to a more ordered
carbon structure at high temperature. The DRIFT analysis showed that the
hydroxyl, aliphatic C-H, carbonyl and olefinic C=C functional groups were lost
at high temperatures. The aromatization process started at ≈
400 oC and continued to higher temperatures.

Keywords: Agricultural residues; Pyrolysis;

Fig. 1. FTIR spectra of gas
products evolved at 300 oC for pyrolysis of three materials.

Fig. 2. DRIFT spectra of rice
straw and chars formed at different temperatures.