(4af) Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Dynamics in Simple and Complex Media
The discovery of fullerenes provided exciting insights into how highly symmetrical structures of pure carbon can have remarkable physical properties. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are the vanguard of such architectures. The organization of the hexagonal honeycomb carbon lattice into high-aspect-ratio cylinders with a variety of helical symmetries creates very unusual macromolecular structures representing an emerging research area in condensed matter physics and materials science: traditionally hard materials appearing in new soft matter applications and environments.
I will first show that the dynamics of SWNTs in liquids are essentially polymer-like. By exploiting the intrinsic near-infrared fluorescence of semiconducting SWNTs, we have imaged the Brownian motion of individual nanotubes in water and have measured directly the bending stiffness of SWNTs. The semiflexible chain model represents accurately the configurational dynamics of SWNTs suspended in water. Interestingly, the persistence length of SWNTs is comparable to that of biopolymers.
This finding paves the way for using SWNTs as a model system for semiflexible polymers to answer long-standing fundamental questions in polymer physics. I will discuss the confined dynamics of stiff macromolecules in crowded environments, a common feature of polymer composites and the cell cytoskeleton. In fixed porous networks, we find that even a small bending flexibility strongly enhances SWNTs motion. This ends a 30-year-old debate in polymer physics: the rotational diffusion constant is proportional to the filament bending compliance and counter-intuitively, independent of the network porosity. The dynamics of SWNTs in equilibrium and non-equilibrium biopolymer networks is more complex. At long times, SWNTs reptate in the networks. At short times SWNTs can sample the spectrum of local stresses in equilibrium networks. In the non-equilibrium networks we observe strong local shape fluctuations driven by force generating molecular motors. I will discuss a newly developed microrheology technique in which we use nanotubes as “stealth probes” to measure viscoelastic properties of the host media.
Finally, I will introduce a new single-molecule technique based on ultra-stable near-infrared fluorescence of short SWNTs, to study intracellular transport dynamics in living cells and in whole organisms. The combination of long-time stability and high signal-to-noise ratio enables the accurate long-term tracking of single motor proteins tagged with SWNTs traversing the entire cell. Remarkably, we can distinguish the motor protein’s motion along its microtubule track from the track’s underlying random non-thermal fluctuations.