(178g) Concomitant Co-Crystallization On Engineered Surfaces

Authors: 
Wong, S. Y., Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Myerson, A. S., Massachusetts Institute of Technology



Concomitant Co-Crystallization on
Engineered Surfaces

Xingyi Shi, Shin Yee Wong, Xiaochuan Yang and Allan
S. Myerson

Department of Chemical Engineering,
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, 66-568,
Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, United States

Co-crystals
are crystalline materials made up of two or more components. In pharmaceutical
systems, co-crystals are used to enhance the physical properties (e.g. solubility
or melting point) of a drug substance via non-covalent interactions with a
co-former. Numerous high throughput screening methods have been proposed1.
However, few of these studies examine polymorphism of the co-crystals. In our
previous work2,
patterned self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) were shown to be an attractive tool for
polymorph screening. To expand the application to co-crystals, the patterned
SAMs substrates were used for the concomitant co-crystallization of
caffeine-oxalic acid.

Bi-functional
patterned SAMs were prepared by photolithography using silicon wafers as the
base substrate coated with 5 nm titanium and 50 nm gold layers. The patterned
gold substrates have an island diameter of 500 µm, with the hydrophilic gold
island functionalized with the ?COOH group, and hydrophobic long-chain alkyl group
on the silicon substrate. Co-crystallization experiments were conducted by forming
an array of droplets of caffeine and oxalic acid solution (2:1 molar ratio) in
chloroform: methanol (7:2 v/v) onto the SAMs. Then, the solvents were allowed
to evaporate. Once the co-crystal is formed, the crystals were characterized by
Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction.  Compared to the Raman spectrum of
the co-crystal (reference) reported earlier3,
polymorphs with distinct Raman peaks at 1076 and 1588 cm-1 were observed.
With six repeated experiments, more than 50% of the islands were found to be
the reference co-crystal.  On non-reference co-crystal islands, majority of the
crystals have peaks at 1076 and 1588 cm-1in addition to the
co-crystal reference peaks, with some of them having a lone peak at either 1076
or 1588 cm-1. Besides, the XRD diffraction pattern also showed
additional peaks at 2θ of 30o and 32.3o, further
confirming the presence of a new co-crystal form.

Figure
1. Co-crystals grown on SAMs at increasing magnification

Reference:

1. Elbagerma, M. A.; Edwards, H. G.
M.; Munshi, T.; Hargreaves, M. D.; Matousek, P.; Scowen, I. J. Crystal
Growth & Design
2010, 5, 2360-2371.

2. Singh, A.; Lee, I. S.; Myerson,
A. S. Crystal Growth & Design 2009, 2, 1182-1185.

3. Trask, A. V.; Motherwell, W. D.
S.; Jones, W. Crystal Growth & Design 2005, 3,
1013-1021.