(69c) The Effect of Accelerated Hydrothermal Aging On NH3-SCR Over Cu-Hbea Catalyst | AIChE

(69c) The Effect of Accelerated Hydrothermal Aging On NH3-SCR Over Cu-Hbea Catalyst


Wilken, N. - Presenter, Chalmers University
Wijayanti, K. - Presenter, Chalmers University
Vedaiyan, R. - Presenter, Cummins Inc.
Yezerets, A. - Presenter, Cummins Inc.
Olsson, L. - Presenter, Chalmers University of Technology


Diesel engines have good fuel efficiency, due to that
they operate with excess of oxygen. However, the excess of oxygen that is fed
into the engine is also present in the exhaust stream. This disables the
selectivity of the standard three-way catalyst towards nitrogen oxides (NOx). It is crucial to reduce the NOx, due to environmental problems. One
effective solution is to use ammonia (NH3) selective catalytic
reduction (SCR). Urea is sprayed into the exhaust, and the urea decomposes and
hydrolyses to form ammonia. The ammonia reacts selectively with the NOx and produces nitrogen
and water. Iron and copper based zeolite catalysts have shown very good
performance, however they can be hydrothermally aged. The objective of this
work was to examine different reactions involved in the SCR mechanism over
Cu-Beta and the effect the hydrothermal aging has on these reactions.


catalyst was prepared from hydrogen beta zeolite (HBEA) from Zeolyst International. Copper was ion exchanged into the
HBEA by an aqueous ion exchange method. A total of 4wt% copper was added to the
zeolite, which will be referred to as Cu-BEA. The zeolite powder was coated on
a monolith using the incipient wetness technique. One of the monoliths was
hydrothermally treated at 500°C, 600°C, 700°C, 800°C and 900°C for 3 hours
each. After each aging a set of experiments were conducted to evaluate the
specific change in performance of the SCR mechanism as well as the oxidation of
NH3 and NO and the adsorption and desorption of NH3. The
investigated temperature range was 150°C-500°C. A total gas flow of 3500 ml/min
was used resulting in a space velocity of 30 300h-1. The gas flow
contained 8%O2, 5%H2O and 5%CO2 as well as
different levels of NH3, NO and NO2. The gas mixture was
analyzed with a MKS MultiGas FTIR.

adsorption and desorption behavior was further investigated using the powder
directly in a Setaram Sensys
DSC. The sample was hydrothermally treated at 500°C, 600°C, 700°C and 780°C and
the coverage dependent heat of adsorption was calculated by performing a
stepwise adsorption of NH3 at different temperatures [1].
The gas stream was analyzed with a Hiden HPR-20 QUI
mass spectrometer.

Results and discussion

influence of hydrothermal aging on the SCR mechanism was studied. The different
SCR reactions were investigated separately. In Figure 1 the results for a fast
SCR experiment are shown. A gas flow composed of 5%H2O, 5%CO2,
8%O2, 400ppm NH3, 200ppm NO and 200ppm NO2 was
used. The temperature was increased in steps from 150°C to 500°C. After each
experiment the catalyst was hydrothermally treated, which is described in the
experimental section. At 150°C a similar conversion of NOx
is observed for aging temperatures up to 800°C. The aging at 900°C caused a
significant drop in activity. When the temperature is increased during the
experiment the conversion increases as well. At 300°C and 400°C the experiments
that were done when the catalyst was aged up to 700°C reach full conversion.
For higher aging temperatures full conversion was not observed. When the
temperature in the experiment is increased to 500°C a drop in conversion is
observed. NH3 oxidation starts to play a role in that temperature
range and therefore not all the NH3 is available for the SCR
reaction. The NH3 storage capacity decreased with higher aging temperatures
as well as the NO and NH3 oxidation activity.

coverage depended heat of adsorption of NH3 was investigated in the
calorimeter, using the method described earlier [1]. We could see a trend
towards less strong bound ammonia for higher aging temperatures
which is in good agreement with TPD experiments that were conducted.


Figure 1. NH3 SCR
over a Cu-BEA catalyst after different hydrothermal treatment. Conditions: 200
ppm NO, 200ppm NO2, 400 ppm NH3, 8 % O2 and 5
% H2, SV = 30 300h-1.


Ammonia SCR is an
important technique for reducing NOx from
diesel and lean burn gasoline engines. Zeolite based catalysts have been proven
to be a good choice for this reaction, however they can be hydrothermally aged.
Since reactions on other components, like diesel particulate filter
regeneration, might lead to very high exhaust gas temperatures the objective of
this study was a detailed study of the catalyst while undergoing hydrothermal


This work
has been performed within the Competence Centre for Catalysis and Cummins Inc. The
authors would like to thank Cummins Inc. for the financial support. One author
(Louise Olsson) would also like to acknowledge the Swedish foundation for
strategic research (F06-0006) for additional support. The financial support for
the micro calorimeter from the Swedish Research Council (Contract:
621-2003-4149 and 621-2006-3706) and for the FTIR from Knut and Alice
Wallenberg Foundation, Dnr KAW 2005.0055, is gratefully


N. Wilken, K. Kamasamudram, N.W.
Currier, J. Li, A. Yezerets, L. Olsson, Catalysis Today 151 (2010) 237.