(727b) Effects of Composition and Structure On the Basicity of Oxygen in Bismuth Molybdate and Bismuth Vanadomolybdate Thin Films | AIChE

(727b) Effects of Composition and Structure On the Basicity of Oxygen in Bismuth Molybdate and Bismuth Vanadomolybdate Thin Films


Getsoian, A. (. - Presenter, University of California Berkeley
Bell, A. T. - Presenter, University of California, Berkeley

            Bismuth molybdate-based catalysts have been used
for the production of acrolein and acrylonitrile from propylene for over 50
years.  While variants of this catalyst have been well studied in the
intervening decades, the nature of the active sites involved in the partial
oxidation or ammoxidation of propylene is still not fully understood [1].  Additionally,
there is now growing interest in developing a direct route to acrolein and acrylonitrile
from propane, a more abundant and less expensive feedstock.  Mixed bismuth
vanadate-molybdate catalysts of the general composition Bi1-x/3V1-xMoxO4
have shown promise for this conversion, with maximum activity and selectivity
to acrolein observed when x=0.45 [2].  However, the nature of the active sites
present in this material, and the rationale for observed trends in activity and
selectivity vs. composition, are even less well understood than in the parent
bismuth molybdate.  In order to better understand the structure-function
relationships in these catalysts, our group has developed a method for
depositing thin films of bismuth molybdate or vanadomolybdate onto gold-coated
silicon wafers, and then characterizing these thin films by x-ray photoelectron
spectroscopy (XPS) and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS).  The
position of the O1s peak in the XPS spectrum is used to determine the optical basicity
of the metal oxide films.  Optical basicity is a quantitative measure of the
Lewis base character of oxygen sites [3], and has been shown to correlate with
activity of metal oxides for oxidation and oxidative dehydrogenation reactions
[4].  SERS studies provide a second measure of the chemical environment of
oxygen species in the catalyst:  the positions of V-O and Mo-O stretches in
SERS spectra indicate the strength of V-O and Mo-O bonds, which in turn
provides a measure of electron density on oxygen sites in the catalyst.  In Bi1-x/3V1-xMoxO4
films, end-member BiVO4 (x=0) shows a strong Raman peak at 826 cm-1,
attributable to the symmetric vibration of VO43-
moieties.  As Mo+6 is increasingly substituted for V+5 up
to the most active composition (Bi0.85V0.55Mo0.45O4,
x=0.45), a second Raman peak at 880 cm-1 appears and grows more
prominent.  This peak is attributable to the symmetric stretch of the MoO42-
moiety, and suggests that only one type of molybdenum enviroment, and therefore
two types of oxygen environments (associated to vanadate and molybdate) are
present in the most active catalyst formulation.  This is in marked contrast to
the x=1 end-member Bi2Mo3O12, which has five
different oxygen environments and exhibits vMo-O at 819, 844,
862, 903, 929, 961, and 995 cm-1.  Development of a relationship
between the structure of the bismuth vanadomolybdates and their Lewis basicity
will provide a scientific basis for guiding the identification of such
catalysts for the oxidation of propane. The methodology that we have developed
should also be applicable to the study of a broad range of problems in metal
oxide catalysis.


1.  Jung J.C.; Lee H.; Song I.K. Catalysis Surveys from
2009, 13, 78 ? 93.

2.  Kim Y.C.; Ueda W.; Moro-oka Y. Applied Catalysis
, 70, 175 ? 187.

3.  Duffy J.A.; Ingram M.D. Journal
of Non-Crystalline Solids
1976, 21, 373 ? 410.

4.  Moriceau P.;
Taouk B.; Bordes E.; Courtine P. Catalysis Today 2000, 61,
197 ? 201.