(480d) Stabilization of the Nitric Oxide Prodrugs through Incorporation Into PEG-Protected Nanoparticles

Kumar, V., Princeton University
Hong, S. Y., National Cancer Institute
Maciag, A. E., National Cancer Institute
Chakrapani, H., Indian Institute of Science Education and Research
Prud'homme, R. K., Princeton University
Saavedra, J. E., National Cancer Institute
Keefer, L. K., National Cancer Institute

We report the stabilization of the nitric oxide (NO) prodrugs and anticancer lead compounds, PABA/NO (O2-{2,4-dinitro-5-[4-(N-methylamino)benzoyloxy]phenyl} 1-(N,N-dimethylamino)diazen-1-ium- 1,2-diolate) and ?Double JS-K? 1,5-bis-{1-[(4-ethoxycarbonyl)piperazin-1-yl]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diol-2-ato}- 2,4-dinitrobenzene, through their incorporation into polymer-protected nanoparticles. The prodrugs were formulated in block copolymer-stabilized nanoparticles with sizes from 220 to 450 nm by a novel rapid precipitation process. The block copolymers, with polyethylene glycol (PEG) soluble blocks, provide a steric barrier against NO prodrug activation by glutathione. Too rapid activation and NO release has been a major barrier to effective administration of this class of compounds. The nanoparticle stabilized PABA/NO is protected from attack by glutathione as evidenced by a significant increase in time taken for 50% decomposition from 15 min (unformulated) to 5 h (formulated); in the case of Double JS-K, the 50% decomposition time was extended from 4.5 min (unformulated) to 40 min (formulated). The more hydrophobic PABA/NO produced more stable nanoparticles and correspondingly more extended release times in comparison with Double JS-K. The hydrophobic blocks of the polymer were either polystyrene or polylactide. Both blocks produced nanoparticles of approximately the same size and release kinetics. This combination of PEG-protected nanoparticles with sizes appropriate for cancer targeting by enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) and delayed release of NO may afford enhanced therapeutic benefit. Funded by NCI Contract HHSN261200800001E.